Advertisement

Experimental Mechanics

, Volume 53, Issue 2, pp 267–286 | Cite as

Validation of Mechanical Strain Relaxation Methods for Stress Measurement

  • D. M. Goudar
  • D. J. SmithEmail author
Article

Abstract

Most validation studies of mechanical strain relaxation (MSR) methods for residual stress measurement rely on using the saw-tooth residual stress distribution resulting from four point bending and elastic–plastic deformation. Validation studies using simple applied stress profiles in rectangular steel beams are used in this work, together with beams subjected to elastic–plastic bending. Two MSR methods are explored, deep-hole drilling (DHD) and incremental centre hole drilling (ICHD). As well as a series of experiments, finite element analyses are conducted to determine the accuracy in the inversion of measured deformation to reconstruct stress. The validation tests demonstrated that apart from the applied stresses, the initial residual stresses also contribute even when samples are expected to be stress free. The uncertainty in measurement for the two MSR methods is determined, with the uncertainty in near surface measurement found to be significantly larger than uncertainty for interior measurement. In simple loading cases (and simple stress profiles) the uncertainty in measurement and hence the degree of validation is shown to be within about ±50 MPa for steel for “known” stress up to about 140 MPa. However, if the residual stress distribution is more complex there arises increased uncertainty in the predicted residual stress and lack of confidence between measurements methods.

Keywords

Residual stress Measurement Mechanical strain relaxation 

References

  1. 1.
    Noyan IC, Cohen JB (1987) Measurement by diffraction and interpretation. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Withers PJ, Bhadesia HKDH (2001) Residual stress - part 1 – measurement techniques. Mater Sci Technol 17(01):355–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kandil FA, Lord JD, Fry AT, Grant PV (2004) “A review of residual stress measurement methods - a guide to selection”, NPL Report MATC (A) Teddington, Middlesex, UK, 2001Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    George D, Kingston E, Smith DJ (2002) Measurement of through-thickness stresses using small holes. J Strain Anal 37:125–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Stefanescu D, Truman CE, Smith DJ, Whitehead PS (2006) Improvements in residual stress measurement by the incremental centre hole drilling technique. Exp Mech 46:417–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Smith DJ, Bouchard PJ, George D (2000) Measurement and prediction of residual stresses in thick-section steel welds. J Strain Anal 35:287–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Prime MB (1999) Residual stress measurement by successive extension of a slot: the crack compliance method. Appl Mech Rev 52(2):75–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Prime MB (2001) Cross-sectional mapping of residual stresses by measuring the surface contour after a cut. J Eng Mater Technol 123:162–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hill MR, Nelson DV (1995) The inherent strain method for residual stress determination and its application to a long welded joint, vol 318. ASME, PVP, New York, pp 343–352Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Schajer GS, Prime MB (2006) Use of inverse solutions for residual stress measurement. J Eng Mater Technol 128(3):375–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gleser LJ (1998) Assessing uncertainty in measurement. Stat Sci 13(3):277–290MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Leggatt RH, Smith DJ, Smith SD, Faure F (1996) Development and experimental validation of the deep hole method for residual stress measurement. J Strain Anal 31:177–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ezeilo AN, Webster GA (2000) Neutron diffraction analysis of the residual stress distribution in a bent bar. J Strain Anal Eng Des 35(4):235–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Webster GA (2000) Neutron diffraction measurement of residual stress in a shrink-fit ring and plug, VAMAS Report no 38Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gnaupel-Herold T, Prask HJ, Clark AV, Hehman CS, Nguyen TN (2000) A comparison of neutron and ultrasonic determinations of residual stress. Mater Sci Technol 11:436–444Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Stacey A, MacGillivary HJ, Webster GA, Webster OJ, Ziebeck KRA (1985) Measurement of residual stresses by neutron diffraction. J Strain Anal 20(2):93–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Venter AM, de Swardt RR, Kyriacou S (2000) Comparative measurements on autofrettaged cylinders with large Bauschinger reverse yielding zones. J Strain Anal 35:459–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cho JR, Conlon KT, Reed RC (2003) Residual stresses in an Electron Beam Weld of Ti-834 Characterisation and Numerical Modelling. Metall Mater Trans A 34A:2935–2946CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ficquet X, Smith DJ, Truman CE, Kingston EJ, Dennis RJ (2009) Measurement and prediction of residual stress in a bead-on-plate weld benchmark specimen. Int J Press Vessel Pip 86:20–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nadri B, Bouchard PJ, Truman CE, Smith DJ (2007) “Statistical analysis of experimental and numerical weld residual stresses”, Proceedings of the ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference, San Antonio, Texas, USA, CDGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Carston O, Wimpory R, Neov D (2009) Residual stress measurement by neutron diffraction in a single bead on plate weld - influence of instrument and measurement settings on the scatter of the results. Mater Sci Forum 638–642:2452–2457Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Schajer GS (1988) Measurement of Non-uniform residual stresses using the hole drilling method. Part I - stress calculation procedures. J Eng Mater Technol 110:338–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    BIPM, IEC, IFCC, ISO, IUPAC, IUPAP, OIML (1995) Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM). ISO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Menditto A, Patriarca M, Magnusson B (2007) Understanding the meaning of accuracy, trueness and precision. Accred Qual Assur 12:45–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Schajer GS, Altus E (1996) Stress calculation error analysis for incremental hole-drilling residual stress measurements. J Eng Mater Technol 118(1):120–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Goudar DM, Truman CE, Smith DJ (2011) Evaluating uncertainty in residual stress measured using the deep-hole drilling technique. Strain 47(1):62–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Goudar DM (2011) “Quantifying uncertainty in residual stress measurement using hole drilling technique”, PhD thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bristol, UKGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Fitzpatrick ME, Lodini A (2003) “Analysis of residual stress by diffraction using neutron and synchrotron radiation ”, Taylor & Francis, LondonGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Zuccarello B (1999) Optimal calculation steps for the evaluation of residual stress by the incremental hole-drilling method. Exp Mech 39:117–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gere JM (2004) “Mechanics of materials”, 6th Edition, Thomson Learning Inc.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dowling NE (1999) “Mechanical behaviour of materials-engineering methods for deformation, fracture and fatigue”, Second edition, Prentice HallGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    ABAQUS, VERSION 6.9, Dassault Systemes UK Ltd. http//www.simulia.com
  33. 33.
    ASTM-E837-08 (2008) “Standard test method for determining residual stresses by the hole-drilling strain-gage method,” ASTM InternationalGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Grant PV, Lord PD, Whitehead PS (2002) The measurement of residual stresses by the incremental hole drilling technique, measurement good practice guide 53. National Physical Laboratory, UKGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
  36. 36.
    Stefanescu D, Truman CE, Smith DJ (2004) An integrated approach for measuring the near-surface and subsurface residual stress in engineering components. J Strain Anal 39:483–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Schajer GS, Prime MB (2007) Residual stress solution extrapolation for the slitting method using equilibrium constraints. J Eng Mater Technol 129(2):226–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hodgson DZL (2011) “Residual stress measurement across different length scales”, PhD Thesis, University of BristolGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Nowell D, Tochilin S, Hills DA (2000) Measurement of residual stresses in beams and plates using the crack compliance technique. J Strain Anal 35(4):277–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Nadri B, Bouchard PJ, Smith M, Truman CE, Smith DJ (2010) Modelling and statistical treatment of residual stress distributions in an edge welded stainless steel beam. Strain. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-1305.2009.00718

Copyright information

© Society for Experimental Mechanics 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Solid Mechanics Group, Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of BristolBristolUK

Personalised recommendations