Experimental Mechanics

, Volume 51, Issue 3, pp 359–371 | Cite as

Determination of the Frictional Properties of Titanium and Nickel Alloys Using the Digital Image Correlation Method

  • M. E. Kartal
  • D. M. Mulvihill
  • D. Nowell
  • D. A. Hills


The paper describes experiments to investigate the frictional properties of a Titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) and a Nickel alloy (Udimet 720) under representative engineering conditions. Flat fretting pads with rounded corners were clamped against a flat specimen and a servo-hydraulic tensile testing machine was used to apply cyclic displacement to the specimen. Slip displacement between the specimen and pad was measured remotely using an LVDT and locally using digital image correlation. The latter approach allowed accurate determination of the tangential contact stiffness from frictional hysteresis loops. The results obtained show that the contacts are significantly less stiff than would be predicted by a smooth elastic contact analysis. A finite element model of the experimental contact geometry was constructed and it was shown that good agreement with the experimental measurements of contact stiffness can be obtained with a suitable choice of elastic modulus for a compliant surface layer.


Friction Hysteresis loops Digital image correlation Contact stiffness Titanium alloy Nickel alloy 



The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support of the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council in the UK (EPSRC) under grant reference EP/E058337/1, “A Predictive Approach to Modelling Frictional Joint Performance (PAMFJP)”. They would also like to thank Rolls-Royce plc for supporting the experimental programme by supplying specimen material. Finally thanks are due to our collaborators at Imperial College: Dr. D Dini; Dr A.V. Olver; and Prof. D.J. Ewins for useful discussion of the results presented here.


  1. 1.
    Hills DA, Nowell D (1994) Mechanics of fretting fatigue. Kluwer Academic, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dobromirski JM (1992) Variables of fretting process: are there 50 of them? In: Helmi Attia M, Waterhouse RB (eds) Standardization of fretting fatigue test methods and equipment, ASTM STP 1159. American Society of Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, pp 60–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Amontons G (1699) De la résistance causée dans les machines. Mémoires de l’Académie Royale A, 257–282Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Coulomb CA (1785) Théorie des machines simples, en eyant égard au frottement de leurs parties et a la roideur des cordages. Mémoires de Mathématique et de Physique de l’Académie Royale, 161–342Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cattaneo C (1938) Sul Contatto di due Corpi Elastici: Distribuzione Locale Degli Sforzi. Accademia dei Lincei, Rendiconti 27(6):342–348zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mindlin RD (1949) Compliance of elastic bodies in contact. ASME J Appl Mech 16:259–268MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Johnson KL (1985) Contact mechanics. Cambridge University Press, CambridgezbMATHGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mindlin RD (1951) Influence of rotatory inertia and shear on flexural motions of isotropic elastic plates. J Appl Mech 18:31–38zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Petrov EP, Ewins DJ (2006) Effects of damping and varying contact area at blade-disk joints in forced response analysis of bladed disk assemblies. Trans ASME: J Turbomachinery 128(2):403–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fridrici V, Fouvry S, Kapsa P, Perruchaut P (2005) Prediction of cracking in Ti–6Al–4V alloy under fretting-wear: use of the SWT criterion. Wear 259:300–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ding J, Bandak G, Leen SB, Williams EJ, Shipway PH (2009) Experimental characterization and numerical simulation of contact evolution effect on fretting crack nucleation for Ti–6Al–4V. Tribol Int 42:1651–1662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mohd Tobi AL, Ding J, Bandak G, Leen SB, Shipway PH (2009) A study on the interaction between fretting wear and cyclic plasticity for Ti–6Al–4V. Wear 267:270–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Everitt NM, Ding J, Bandak G, Shipway PH, Leen SB, Williams EJ (2009) Characterisation of fretting-induced wear debris for Ti-6Al-4V. Wear 267:283–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ding J, McColl IR, Leen SB, Shipway PH (2007) A finite element based approach to simulating the effects of debris on fretting wear. Wear 263:481–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jin O, Mall S (2002) Influence of contact configuration on fretting fatigue behavior of Ti–6Al–4V under independent pad displacement condition. Int J Fatigue 24:1243–1253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Filippi S, Akay A, Gola MM (2004) Measurement of tangential contact hysteresis during microslip. J Tribol 126(3):482–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Alicona IFM manual (2008) Alicona Imaging GmbH, Grambach, AustriaGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    TiMetal 6-4 datasheet (2000) TMC-0150, Titanium Metals Corporatiou, Hartford, CT, USAGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Special Metals Corporation (2004) publication No. SMC-106, Special Metals Corporation, Huntington, WV, USAGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kim K, Korsunsky AM (2008) Exponential evolution law of fretting wear damage in low-friction coatings for aerospace components. Surf Coat Technol 202:5838–5846CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kim K (2006) Investigation of fretting wear and fretting fatigue of coated systems, D.Phil. Thesis, University of Oxford, UKGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    PixeLink: Data Sheet, Pixelink PL-B741U USB Mono Camera, Ottawa, Canada
  23. 23.
    Questar Corporation: Specification Sheet, Questar QM1 Long-Distance Microscope, New Hope, PA, USA.
  24. 24.
    Hild F, Roux S (2006) Digital image correlation: from displacement measurement to identification of elastic properties—a review. Strain 42(2):69–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Strain Master Commercial Software, LaVision. (
  26. 26.
    Stanislas M, Kompenhans J, Westerweel J (2000) Particle image velocimetry: progress towards industrial application. Kluwer, DordrechtzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Fincham AM, Spedding GR (1997) Low cost, high resolution DPIV for measurement of turbulent fluid flow. Exp Fluids 23:449–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    ABAQUS user’s manual v6.7Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sevostianov I, Kachanov M (2008) Contact of rough surfaces: a simple model for elasticity, conductivity and cross-property connections. J Mech Phys Solid 56:1380–1400MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Berthoud P, Baumberger T (1998) Shear stiffness of a solid-solid multicontact interface. Proc Math Phys Eng Sci 454:1615–1634MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Society for Experimental Mechanics 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. E. Kartal
    • 1
  • D. M. Mulvihill
    • 1
  • D. Nowell
    • 1
  • D. A. Hills
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Engineering ScienceUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK

Personalised recommendations