Experimental Mechanics

, Volume 48, Issue 1, pp 133–137 | Cite as

The Use of Acoustic Emission Monitoring to Rank Paper Materials with Respect to Their Fracture Toughness

  • P. A. GradinEmail author
  • D. Graham
  • P. Nygård
  • H. Vallen


In this study, a simplified Acoustic Emission (AE) equipment, in essence an AE signal conditioner and a USB (Universal Serial Bus) data acquisition system, is used to study what happens in paper structures during mechanical loading. By the use of such equipment, some parameters that can be extracted are e.g. the stress and strain at onset of AE, the stress and strain at the onset of rapid AE defined as some numerical factor (larger then one) times the initial emission rate, the emission rate at the first stage of loading and the stress and strain at final failure i.e. when the specimen loses its load carrying ability.In this study however, the interest is focused on one particular parameter i.e. the elastic strain energy density W c at onset of AE. This is a parameter with a clear physical meaning and in this study, the correlation between this parameter and a fracture toughness measure, is investigated.The conclusion is that when nine different paper materials (with a large span regarding properties) are considered, there is a correlation (however not linear) between these two parameters.


Acoustic emission Damage mechanics Fracture toughness Bond failure J-integral 



The financial support from the European Commissions 5th frame program under contract No QLK%-CT-2002-00772 is greatly acknowledged.


  1. 1.
    Gradin PA, Nyström S, Flink P, Forsberg S, Stollmaier F (1997) Acoustic emission monitoring of light weight coated paper. J Pulp Pap Sci 23:3, March.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Isaksson P, Gradin PA, Kulachenko A (2006) The onset and progression of damage in isotropic paper sheets. Int J Solids Struct 43:713–726.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Yamauchi T, Okumura S, Noguchi M (1990) J Pulp Pap Sci 16:2, Jan.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yamauchi T, Okumura S, Murakami K (1989) J Pulp Pap Sci 15:1, Jan.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Yamauchi T, Okumura S, Noguchi M (1990) J Pulp Pap Sci 16:2, Jan.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Salminen LI, Tolvanen AI, Alava MJ (2003) Acoustic emission from paper fracture. Phys Rev Lett 89:185503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wellmar P, Fellers C, Delhage L (1997) Fracture toughness of paper-development of a test method. Nordic Pulp Pap Research J 12(3):189–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Vallen Systeme GmbH, Product Description ASCO-P, ASCO-DAQ2 at
  9. 9.
    ISO 536, Paper and board-determination of grammage, 1988.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    ISO 534, Paper and board-determination of thickness and apparent bulk density or apparent sheet density, 1988.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Society for Experimental Mechanics 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. A. Gradin
    • 1
    Email author
  • D. Graham
    • 2
  • P. Nygård
    • 3
  • H. Vallen
    • 4
  1. 1.Mid Sweden UniversitySundsvallSweden
  2. 2.School of Computing and Mathematical SciencesUniversity of GreenwichLondonUK
  3. 3.Paper and Fibre Research InstituteTrondheimNorway
  4. 4.Vallen-Systeme GmbHIckingGermany

Personalised recommendations