Advertisement

Experimental Mechanics

, Volume 47, Issue 4, pp 451–463 | Cite as

Miniaturized Compression Test at Very High Strain Rates by Direct Impact

  • J. Z. Malinowski
  • J. R. Klepaczko
  • Z. L. Kowalewski
Article

Abstract

A modified miniaturized version of the Direct Impact Compression Test (DICT) technique is described in this paper. The method permits determination of the rate-sensitive plastic properties of materials up to strain rate ∼105 s−1. Miniaturization of the experimental setup with specimen dimensions: diameter d S = 2.0 mm and thickness l S = 1.0 mm, Hopkinson bar diameter 5.2 mm, with application of a novel optical arrangement in measurement of specimen strain, makes possible compression tests at strain rates from ∼103 s−1 to ∼105 s−1. In order to estimate the rate sensitivity of a low-alloy construction steel, quasi-static, Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) and DICT tests have been performed at room temperature within the rate spectrum ranging from 5*10−4 s−1 to 5*104 s−1. Adiabatic heating and friction effects are analyzed and the final true stress versus true strain curves at different strain rates are corrected to a constant temperature and zero friction. The results have been analyzed in the form of true stress versus the logarithm of strain rate and they show two regions of a constant rate sensitivity \( \beta = {\left( {{\Delta \sigma } \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{\Delta \sigma } {\log {\mathop \varepsilon \limits^ \cdot }}}} \right. \kern-\nulldelimiterspace} {\log {\mathop \varepsilon \limits^ \cdot }}} \right)}_{\varepsilon } \): relatively low up to the strain rate threshold ∼50 s−1, and relatively high above the threshold, up to strain rate ∼4.5*104 s−1.

Keywords

Direct Impact Compression Test (DICT) Dynamic plasticity Mild Steel High strain rate 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The research reported in this paper was supported in part by the Project KBN (Poland) Nr 7 T07A 02118 (ZM and ZLK) and in part by the Laboratory of Physics and Mechanics of Materials, UMR-CNRS, Metz, France (JRK).

References

  1. 1.
    Kolsky H (1949) An investigation of the mechanical properties of materials at very high rates of loading. Proc Phys Soc London 62B:676.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lindholm US (1964) Some experiments with the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar. J Mech Phys Solids 12(5):317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Davies EDH, Hunter SC (1963) The dynamic compression testing of solids by the method of the Split Hopkins Pressure Bar. J Mech Phys Solids 11:155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lindholm US, Yeakley LM (1965) Dynamic deformation of single and polycrystalline aluminum. J Mech Phys Solids 13:41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Harding J, Wood EO, Cambell JD (1960) Tensile testing of materials at impact rates of strain. J Mech Eng Sci 2:88.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nicholas T (1981) Tensile testing of materials at high rates of strain. Exp Mech 21:177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Duffy J, Campbell JD, Hawley RM (1971) On the use of a torsional Split Hopkinson Bar to study rate effects in 1100-0 aluminum. J Appl Mech 93(3):83.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Senseny PE, Duffy J, Hawley RM (1978) Experiments on strain rate history and temperature effects during the plastic deformation of close-packed metals. J Appl Mech Trans ASME 45:60.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Campbell JD, Ferguson WG (1970) The temperature and strain - rate dependence of the shear strength of mild steel. Phila Mag 81:63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Harding J, Huddart J (1979) The use of the double–notch shear test in determining the mechanical properties of uranium at very high rates of strain. In: Proc. conf. on mech. prop. at high rates of strain, conf. ser. no. 47, Oxford, March, 49.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dharan CKM, Hauser FE (1970) Determination of stress - strain characteristic at very high strain rates. Exp Mech 10:370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Malinowski JZ, Klepaczko JR (1986) A unified analytic and numerical approach to specimen behaviour in the SHPB. Int J Mech Sci 28:381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gorham DA, Pope PH, Cox O (1984) Sources of error in very high strain rate compression tests. In: Proc. conf. on mech. prop. at high rates of strain, Oxford, conf. ser., 70, 151.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lindholm US (1978) Deformation maps in the region of high dislocation velocity. In: Proc. IUTAM symposium on high velocity deformation of solids, Tokyo, 1977. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, p 26.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gorham DA (1979) Measurement of stress–strain properties of strong metals at very high rates of strain. In: Proc. conf. on mech. prop. at high rates strain, conf. ser. no. 47, Oxford, March, 16.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kamler F, Niessen P, Pick RJ (1995) Measurement of the behavior of high purity copper at very high rates of strain. Can J Phys 73:295.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Safford NA (1992) Materials testing up to 105 s−1 using a miniaturized Hopkinson Bar with dispersion corrections. In: Proc. 2nd intl. symp. on intense dynamic loading and its efects, Sichuan University Press, Chengdu, China, 378.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jia D, Ramesh KT (2004) A rigorous assessment of the benefits of miniaturization in the Kolsky bar system. Exp Mech 44:445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Klepaczko JR (2002) Advanced experimental techniques in materials testing. In: New experimental methods in material dynamics and impact, Inst. Fund. Technological Res., Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, 223.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wulf GL, Richardson GT (1974) The measurement of dynamic stress–strain relationships at very high strains. J Phys E: Sci Instrum 7:167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wulf GL (1974) Dynamic stress–strain measurements at large strains. In: Mechanical properties at high rates of strain, conf. ser. no 21. The Inst. Phys. London, 48.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gorham DA (1983) A numerical method for the correction of dispersion in pressure bar signals. J Phys E: Sci Instrum 16:477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Shioiri J, Sakino K, Santoh S (1966) Strain rate sensitivity of flow stress at very high rates of strain. In: Kawata K, Shioiri J (eds) IUTAM symp. constitutive relation in high/very high strain rates. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, p 49.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sakino K, Shioiri J (1991) Dynamic flow stress response of aluminum to sudden reduction in strain rate at very high strain rates. J Phys IV, Colloque C3, France, 1, C3/35.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ostwald D, Klepaczko JR, Klimanek P (1997) Compression tests of polycrystalline α- iron up to high strains over a large range of strain rates. J Phys IV, Colloque C3, France, 7, C3/385.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bertholf LD, Karnes CH (1975) Two dimensional analysis of the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar system. J Mech Phys Solids 23:1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gary G (2002) Some aspects of dynamic testing with wave-guides. In: New experimental methods in material dynamics and impact, Inst. Fund. Technological Res., Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, 179.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gary G, Klepaczko JR, Zhao H (1991) Correction de dispersion pour l’analyse des petites déformations aux barre de Hopkinson. J Phys III, Colloque C3, France, 1, C3/403–C3/411.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ramesh KT, Narasimhan S (1996) Finite deformations and the dynamic measurement of radial strains in compression Kolsky bar experiments. Int J Solids Struct 33:3723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Siebel E (1923) Grundlagen zur Berechnung des Kraft und Arbeitbedorf bei Schmieden und Walzen. Stahl und Eisen 43:1295.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Montgomery RS (1976) Friction and wear at high sliding speeds. Wear 36:275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Avitzur B (1964) Forging of hollow discs. Isr J Technol 2(3):295.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ashton M, Perry DJ (2000) A constitutive relationship for metals compensated for adiabatic and friction effects. In: Proc. 6th int. conf. on mechanical and physical behaviour of materials under dynamic loading, Kraków, 263.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Klepaczko JR, Hauser FE (1969) Radial inertia in compression testing of materials. Technical report (internal), Division of Inorganic Materials, University of California, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Samanta SK (1971) Dynamic deformation of aluminum and copper at elevated temperatures. J Mech Phys Solids 19:117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Klepaczko J, Malinowski Z (1978) Dynamic frictional effects as measured from the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar. In: Kawata K, Shioiri J (eds) Proc. IUTAM symposium on high velocity deformation of solids, Tokyo, 1977. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, p 63.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Malinowski JZ (1987) Cylindrical specimen compression analysis in the Split HopkinsonPressure Bar system. Eng Trans 35(4):551.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Klepaczko JR, Duffy J (1982) Strain rate history effects in body-center-cubic metals. ASTM-STP 765:251.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Klepaczko JR (1968) Generalized conditions for stability in tension test. Int J Mech Sci 10:297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Semiatin SL, Jonas JJ (1984) Formability and workability of metals. ASM, Metals Park, OH.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kruszka L (2004) Behaviour of structural steel at high strain rates and at elevated and low temperatures. In: Proc. ISIE-5, University of Cambridge, UK, (poster).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Gorham DA (1991) An effect of specimen size in the high strain rate compression test. Proc. Conf. Dymat, Coll. C3, suppl. Journal de Physique III, 1, C3–411.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Society for Experimental Mechanics 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Z. Malinowski
    • 1
  • J. R. Klepaczko
    • 2
  • Z. L. Kowalewski
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Fundamental Technological ResearchPolish Academy of SciencesWarsawPoland
  2. 2.Laboratory of Physics and Mechanics of Materials, UMR-CNRS 7554Metz UniversityMetzFrance

Personalised recommendations