Two-mode binary data matrices arise in a variety of social network contexts, such as the attendance or non-attendance of individuals at events, the participation or lack of participation of groups in projects, and the votes of judges on cases. A popular method for analyzing such data is two-mode blockmodeling based on structural equivalence, where the goal is to identify partitions for the row and column objects such that the clusters of the row and column objects form blocks that are either complete (all 1s) or null (all 0s) to the greatest extent possible. Multiple restarts of an object relocation heuristic that seeks to minimize the number of inconsistencies (i.e., 1s in null blocks and 0s in complete blocks) with ideal block structure is the predominant approach for tackling this problem. As an alternative, we propose a fast and effective implementation of tabu search. Computational comparisons across a set of 48 large network matrices revealed that the new tabu-search heuristic always provided objective function values that were better than those of the relocation heuristic when the two methods were constrained to the same amount of computation time.
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Brusco, M., Steinley, D. A Tabu-Search Heuristic for Deterministic Two-Mode Blockmodeling of Binary Network Matrices. Psychometrika 76, 612–633 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11336-011-9221-9
- two-mode networks
- tabu search