, Volume 75, Issue 4, pp 649–674 | Cite as

Tests of Homoscedasticity, Normality, and Missing Completely at Random for Incomplete Multivariate Data

  • Mortaza JamshidianEmail author
  • Siavash Jalal


Test of homogeneity of covariances (or homoscedasticity) among several groups has many applications in statistical analysis. In the context of incomplete data analysis, tests of homoscedasticity among groups of cases with identical missing data patterns have been proposed to test whether data are missing completely at random (MCAR). These tests of MCAR require large sample sizes n and/or large group sample sizes n i , and they usually fail when applied to nonnormal data. Hawkins (Technometrics 23:105–110, 1981) proposed a test of multivariate normality and homoscedasticity that is an exact test for complete data when n i are small. This paper proposes a modification of this test for complete data to improve its performance, and extends its application to test of homoscedasticity and MCAR when data are multivariate normal and incomplete. Moreover, it is shown that the statistic used in the Hawkins test in conjunction with a nonparametric k-sample test can be used to obtain a nonparametric test of homoscedasticity that works well for both normal and nonnormal data. It is explained how a combination of the proposed normal-theory Hawkins test and the nonparametric test can be employed to test for homoscedasticity, MCAR, and multivariate normality. Simulation studies show that the newly proposed tests generally outperform their existing competitors in terms of Type I error rejection rates. Also, a power study of the proposed tests indicates good power. The proposed methods use appropriate missing data imputations to impute missing data. Methods of multiple imputation are described and one of the methods is employed to confirm the result of our single imputation methods. Examples are provided where multiple imputation enables one to identify a group or groups whose covariance matrices differ from the majority of other groups.


covariance structures k-sample test missing data multiple imputation nonparametric test structural equations test of homogeneity of covariances 


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Copyright information

© The Psychometric Society 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of MathematicsCalifornia State UniversityFullertonUSA

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