Advertisement

Physical activity and sedentary behavior in amateur sports: master athletes are not free from prolonged sedentary time

  • Juliana ExelEmail author
  • Nuno Mateus
  • Catarina Abrantes
  • Nuno Leite
  • Jaime Sampaio
Original Article

Abstract

Sedentary behavior (SED) and physical activity (PA) are distinct behavioral domains that must be considered before interpreting individual profiles, particularly for amateur athletes which are considered active. The aim was to describe the PA and SED of master amateur runners and footballers, the main individual and team sports. Sixteen male runners and 13 footballers (42 ± 6.9 and 43.9 ± 3.9 years) were monitored for 7 days using triaxial accelerometers (30 Hz). The median (interquartile range) of up to 10 min of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA bouts) was similar among runners and footballers [33.3 (56.0) and 32.5 (47.8) min/day, respectively] and achieved the recommended activity level. Vigorous PA levels were achieved, but were higher for runners than footballers [9.8 (59.5) and 1.6 (3.9) min/day, respectively]. Week-day differences for runners and footballers were found for light [202.0 (139.1) and 261.3 (115.3) min/day, P = 0.001], moderate [47.7 (59.8) and 103.3 (82.7) min/day, P < 0.001] and vigorous PA [9.8 (58.9) and 1.7 (3.9) min/day, P < 0.001]. Athletes present alarming time in bouts of 30-min of sedentary activity on weekdays [202.8 (270.9) and 254.0 (224.3) min/day, P = 0.07]. On the weekends, differences were found in moderate [48.3 (54.9) and 60.8 (89.9) min/day, P = 0.013], MVPA bouts [48.2 (71.4) and 11.3 (44.8) min/day, P < 0.001), and vigorous PA [11.6 (62.4) and 1.3 (4.1) min/day, P < 0.001]. The results of the present study highlight the need to consider the excessive amounts of sedentary behavior in master athletes that cannot be masquerade by adequate PA profiles.

Keywords

Physical activity Sedentarism Behavior Accelerometry Sports 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Project NanoSTIMA: Macro-to-Nano Human Sensing: Towards Integrated Multi-modal Health Monitoring and Analytics/NORTE-01-0145-FEDER-000016, which is financed by the North Portugal Regional Operational Programme (NORTE 2020), under the PORTUGAL 2020 Partnership Agreement, and through the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in the present study involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study. This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.

References

  1. 1.
    Althoff T, Sosic R, Hicks JL, King AC, Delp SL, Leskovec J (2017) Large-scale physical activity data reveal worldwide activity inequality. Nature.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature23018 Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Brugnara L, Murillo S, Novials A, Rojo-Martinez G, Soriguer F, Goday A, Calle-Pascual A, Castano L, Gaztambide S, Valdes S, Franch J, Castell C, Vendrell J, Casamitjana R, Bosch-Comas A, Bordiu E, Carmena R, Catala M, Delgado E, Girbes J, Lopez-Alba A, Martinez-Larrad MT, Menendez E, Mora-Peces I, Pascual-Manich G, Serrano-Rios M, Gomis R, Ortega E (2016) Low physical activity and its association with diabetes and other cardiovascular risk factors: a nationwide, population-based study. PloS One 11(8):e0160959.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0160959 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    World Health Organization (2011) Global status report on noncommunicable diseases 2011. WHO, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gerovasili V, Agaku IT, Vardavas CI, Filippidis FT (2015) Levels of physical activity among adults 18–64 years old in 28 European countries. Prev Med 81:87–91.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2015.08.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rios D, Cubedo M, Rios M (2013) Graphical study of reasons for engagement in physical activity in European Union. Springerplus 2:488.  https://doi.org/10.1186/2193-1801-2-488 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tanaka H, Seals DR (2008) Endurance exercise performance in Masters athletes: age-associated changes and underlying physiological mechanisms. J Physiol 586(1):55–63.  https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2007.141879 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lazarus NR, Harridge SDR (2017) Declining performance of master athletes: silhouettes of the trajectory of healthy human aging? J Physiol 595(9):2941–2948.  https://doi.org/10.1113/JP272443 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hulteen RM, Smith JJ, Morgan PJ, Barnett LM, Hallal PC, Colyvas K, Lubans DR (2017) Global participation in sport and leisure-time physical activities: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Prev Med 95:14–25.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.11.027 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zaryski C, Smith DJ (2005) Training principles and issues for ultra-endurance athletes. Curr Sports Med Rep 4(3):165–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lepers R, Stapley PJ, Cattagni T (2016) Centenarian athletes: examples of ultimate human performance? Age Aging 45(5):732–736.  https://doi.org/10.1093/aging/afw111 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Milanovic Z, Pantelic S, Covic N, Sporis G, Krustrup P (2015) Is recreational soccer effective for improving VO2max a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Med 45(9):1339–1353.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-015-0361-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Milanovic Z, Pantelic S, Kostic R, Trajkovic N, Sporis G (2015) Soccer vs. running training effects in young adult men: which programme is more effective in improvement of body composition? Randomized controlled trial. Biol Sport 32(4):301–305.  https://doi.org/10.5604/20831862.1163693 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Matthews CE, George SM, Moore SC, Bowles HR, Blair A, Park Y, Troiano RP, Hollenbeck A, Schatzkin A (2012) Amount of time spent in sedentary behaviors and cause-specific mortality in US adults. Am J Clin Nutr 95(2):437–445.  https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.111.019620 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Inoue M, Yamamoto S, Kurahashi N, Iwasaki M, Sasazuki S, Tsugane S, Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study G (2008) Daily total physical activity level and total cancer risk in men and women: results from a large-scale population-based cohort study in Japan. Am J Epidemiol 168(4):391–403.  https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwn146 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sedentary Behavior Research N (2012) Letter to the Editor: standardized use of the terms “sedentary” and “sedentary behaviors”. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 37(3):540–542.  https://doi.org/10.1139/h2012-024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Warren TY, Barry V, Hooker SP, Sui X, Church TS, Blair SN (2010) Sedentary behaviors increase risk of cardiovascular disease mortality in men. Med Sci Sports Exerc 42(5):879–885.  https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181c3aa7e CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Craft LL, Zderic TW, Gapstur SM, Vaniterson EH, Thomas DM, Siddique J, Hamilton MT (2012) Evidence that women meeting physical activity guidelines do not sit less: an observational inclinometry study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 9:122.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-9-122 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Judice PB, Silva AM, Magalhaes JP, Matias CN, Sardinha LB (2014) Sedentary behavior and adiposity in elite athletes. J Sports Sci 32(19):1760–1767.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2014.926382 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Weiler R, Aggio D, Hamer M, Taylor T, Kumar B (2015) Sedentary behavior among elite professional footballers: health and performance implications. BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med 1(1):e000023.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjsem-2015-000023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sperlich B, Becker M, Hotho A, Wallmann-Sperlich B, Sareban M, Winkert K, Steinacker JM, Treff G (2017) Sedentary behavior among national elite rowers during off-training—a pilot study. Front Physiol.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2017.00655 Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Clemente FM, Nikolaidis PT, Martins FM, Mendes RS (2016) Physical activity patterns in university students: do they follow the public health guidelines? PloS One 11(3):e0152516.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0152516 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rantalainen T, Pesola AJ, Quittner M, Ridgers ND, Belavy DL (2018) Are habitual runners physically inactive? J Sports Sci 36(16):1793–1800.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2017.1420452 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    McCracken H, Dogra S (2018) Sedentary time in male and female masters and recreational athletes aged 55 and older. J Aging Phys Act 26(1):121–127.  https://doi.org/10.1123/japa.2016-0324 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yang C-C, Hsu Y-L (2010) A review of accelerometry-based wearable motion detectors for physical activity monitoring. Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 10(8):7772–7788.  https://doi.org/10.3390/s100807772 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sabia S, van Hees VT, Shipley MJ, Trenell MI, Hagger-Johnson G, Elbaz A, Kivimaki M, Singh-Manoux A (2014) Association between questionnaire- and accelerometer-assessed physical activity: the role of sociodemographic factors. Am J Epidemiol 179(6):781–790.  https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwt330 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    van Hees VT, Gorzelniak L, Dean Leon EC, Eder M, Pias M, Taherian S, Ekelund U, Renstrom F, Franks PW, Horsch A, Brage S (2013) Separating movement and gravity components in an acceleration signal and implications for the assessment of human daily physical activity. PloS One 8(4):e61691.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061691 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hildebrand M, VT VANH, Hansen BH, Ekelund U (2014) Age group comparability of raw accelerometer output from wrist- and hip-worn monitors. Med Sci Sports Exerc 46(9):1816–1824.  https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000289 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    van Hees VT, Fang Z, Langford J, Assah F, Mohammad A, da Silva IC, Trenell MI, White T, Wareham NJ, Brage S (2014) Autocalibration of accelerometer data for free-living physical activity assessment using local gravity and temperature: an evaluation on four continents. J Appl Physiol 117(7):738–744.  https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00421.2014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Coolican H (2009) Research methods and statistics in psychology, 5th edn. Hodder & Stoughton, LondonGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lee IM, Paffenbarger RS Jr (2000) Associations of light, moderate, and vigorous intensity physical activity with longevity. The Harvard Alumni Health Study. Am J Epidemiol 151(3):293–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Glazer NL, Lyass A, Esliger DW, Blease SJ, Freedson PS, Massaro JM, Murabito JM, Vasan RS (2013) Sustained and shorter bouts of physical activity are related to cardiovascular health. Med Sci Sports Exerc 45(1):109–115.  https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e31826beae5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Milanovic Z, Pantelic S, Sporis G, Mohr M, Krustrup P (2015) Health-related physical fitness in healthy untrained men: effects on VO2max, jump performance and flexibility of soccer and moderate-intensity continuous running. PloS One 10(8):e0135319.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135319 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Swartz AM, Miller NE, Cho YI, Welch WA, Strath SJ (2017) A prospective examination of the impact of high levels of exercise training on sedentary behavior. Eur J Sport Sci 17(2):222–230.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2016.1251496 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bowman SA (2006) Television-viewing characteristics of adults: correlations to eating practices and overweight and health status. Prev Chronic Dis 3(2):A38Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Huynh QL, Blizzard CL, Sharman JE, Magnussen CG, Dwyer T, Venn AJ (2014) The cross-sectional association of sitting time with carotid artery stiffness in young adults. BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med 4(3):e004384.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2013-004384 Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Thorp AA, Owen N, Neuhaus M, Dunstan DW (2011) Sedentary behaviors and subsequent health outcomes in adults a systematic review of longitudinal studies, 1996–2011. Am J Prev Med 41(2):207–215.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2011.05.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Owen N, Healy GN, Matthews CE, Dunstan DW (2010) Too much sitting: the population health science of sedentary behavior. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 38(3):105–113.  https://doi.org/10.1097/JES.0b013e3181e373a2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Healy GN, Dunstan DW, Salmon J, Cerin E, Shaw JE, Zimmet PZ, Owen N (2008) Breaks in sedentary time: beneficial associations with metabolic risk. Diabetes Care 31(4):661–666.  https://doi.org/10.2337/dc07-2046 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Phillips CM, Dillon CB, Perry IJ (2017) Does replacing sedentary behavior with light or moderate to vigorous physical activity modulate inflammatory status in adults? Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 14(1):138.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-017-0594-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ekelund U, Steene-Johannessen J, Brown WJ, Fagerland MW, Owen N, Powell KE, Bauman A, Lee IM, Lancet Physical Activity Series 2 Executive C, Lancet Sedentary Behavior Working G (2016) Does physical activity attenuate, or even eliminate, the detrimental association of sitting time with mortality? A harmonised meta-analysis of data from more than 1 million men and women. Lancet 388(10051):1302–1310.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30370-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Lazarus NR, Harridge SD (2007) Inherent aging in humans: the case for studying master athletes. Scand J Med Sci Sports 17(5):461–463.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2007.00726.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hawkins SA, Wiswell RA, Marcell TJ (2003) Exercise and the master athlete—a model of successful aging? J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 58(11):1009–1011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ottesen L, Jeppesen RS, Krustrup BR (2010) The development of social capital through football and running: studying an intervention program for inactive women. Scand J Med Sci Sports 20(Suppl 1):118–131.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2010.01123.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia S.r.l., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Center in Sports Sciences, Health Sciences and Human Development, CIDESD, CreativeLab Research CommunityUniversity of Trás-os-Montes and Alto DouroVila RealPortugal
  2. 2.Research Center in Sports Sciences, Health Sciences and Human Development, CIDESD, Geron Research CommunityUniversity of Trás-os-Montes and Alto DouroVila RealPortugal

Personalised recommendations