Physical activity and sedentary behavior in amateur sports: master athletes are not free from prolonged sedentary time
Sedentary behavior (SED) and physical activity (PA) are distinct behavioral domains that must be considered before interpreting individual profiles, particularly for amateur athletes which are considered active. The aim was to describe the PA and SED of master amateur runners and footballers, the main individual and team sports. Sixteen male runners and 13 footballers (42 ± 6.9 and 43.9 ± 3.9 years) were monitored for 7 days using triaxial accelerometers (30 Hz). The median (interquartile range) of up to 10 min of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA bouts) was similar among runners and footballers [33.3 (56.0) and 32.5 (47.8) min/day, respectively] and achieved the recommended activity level. Vigorous PA levels were achieved, but were higher for runners than footballers [9.8 (59.5) and 1.6 (3.9) min/day, respectively]. Week-day differences for runners and footballers were found for light [202.0 (139.1) and 261.3 (115.3) min/day, P = 0.001], moderate [47.7 (59.8) and 103.3 (82.7) min/day, P < 0.001] and vigorous PA [9.8 (58.9) and 1.7 (3.9) min/day, P < 0.001]. Athletes present alarming time in bouts of 30-min of sedentary activity on weekdays [202.8 (270.9) and 254.0 (224.3) min/day, P = 0.07]. On the weekends, differences were found in moderate [48.3 (54.9) and 60.8 (89.9) min/day, P = 0.013], MVPA bouts [48.2 (71.4) and 11.3 (44.8) min/day, P < 0.001), and vigorous PA [11.6 (62.4) and 1.3 (4.1) min/day, P < 0.001]. The results of the present study highlight the need to consider the excessive amounts of sedentary behavior in master athletes that cannot be masquerade by adequate PA profiles.
KeywordsPhysical activity Sedentarism Behavior Accelerometry Sports
Project NanoSTIMA: Macro-to-Nano Human Sensing: Towards Integrated Multi-modal Health Monitoring and Analytics/NORTE-01-0145-FEDER-000016, which is financed by the North Portugal Regional Operational Programme (NORTE 2020), under the PORTUGAL 2020 Partnership Agreement, and through the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in the present study involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study. This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.
- 2.Brugnara L, Murillo S, Novials A, Rojo-Martinez G, Soriguer F, Goday A, Calle-Pascual A, Castano L, Gaztambide S, Valdes S, Franch J, Castell C, Vendrell J, Casamitjana R, Bosch-Comas A, Bordiu E, Carmena R, Catala M, Delgado E, Girbes J, Lopez-Alba A, Martinez-Larrad MT, Menendez E, Mora-Peces I, Pascual-Manich G, Serrano-Rios M, Gomis R, Ortega E (2016) Low physical activity and its association with diabetes and other cardiovascular risk factors: a nationwide, population-based study. PloS One 11(8):e0160959. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0160959 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 3.World Health Organization (2011) Global status report on noncommunicable diseases 2011. WHO, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
- 12.Milanovic Z, Pantelic S, Kostic R, Trajkovic N, Sporis G (2015) Soccer vs. running training effects in young adult men: which programme is more effective in improvement of body composition? Randomized controlled trial. Biol Sport 32(4):301–305. https://doi.org/10.5604/20831862.1163693 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 14.Inoue M, Yamamoto S, Kurahashi N, Iwasaki M, Sasazuki S, Tsugane S, Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study G (2008) Daily total physical activity level and total cancer risk in men and women: results from a large-scale population-based cohort study in Japan. Am J Epidemiol 168(4):391–403. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwn146 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 25.Sabia S, van Hees VT, Shipley MJ, Trenell MI, Hagger-Johnson G, Elbaz A, Kivimaki M, Singh-Manoux A (2014) Association between questionnaire- and accelerometer-assessed physical activity: the role of sociodemographic factors. Am J Epidemiol 179(6):781–790. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwt330 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 26.van Hees VT, Gorzelniak L, Dean Leon EC, Eder M, Pias M, Taherian S, Ekelund U, Renstrom F, Franks PW, Horsch A, Brage S (2013) Separating movement and gravity components in an acceleration signal and implications for the assessment of human daily physical activity. PloS One 8(4):e61691. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061691 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 28.van Hees VT, Fang Z, Langford J, Assah F, Mohammad A, da Silva IC, Trenell MI, White T, Wareham NJ, Brage S (2014) Autocalibration of accelerometer data for free-living physical activity assessment using local gravity and temperature: an evaluation on four continents. J Appl Physiol 117(7):738–744. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00421.2014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 29.Coolican H (2009) Research methods and statistics in psychology, 5th edn. Hodder & Stoughton, LondonGoogle Scholar
- 32.Milanovic Z, Pantelic S, Sporis G, Mohr M, Krustrup P (2015) Health-related physical fitness in healthy untrained men: effects on VO2max, jump performance and flexibility of soccer and moderate-intensity continuous running. PloS One 10(8):e0135319. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135319 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 34.Bowman SA (2006) Television-viewing characteristics of adults: correlations to eating practices and overweight and health status. Prev Chronic Dis 3(2):A38Google Scholar
- 40.Ekelund U, Steene-Johannessen J, Brown WJ, Fagerland MW, Owen N, Powell KE, Bauman A, Lee IM, Lancet Physical Activity Series 2 Executive C, Lancet Sedentary Behavior Working G (2016) Does physical activity attenuate, or even eliminate, the detrimental association of sitting time with mortality? A harmonised meta-analysis of data from more than 1 million men and women. Lancet 388(10051):1302–1310. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30370-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar