Ultra-short-term heart rate recovery after maximal exercise in elite European table tennis players
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The purpose of this study was to examine heart rate (HR) responses during 10-s intervals over the first minute of recovery (i.e., ultra-short-term recovery) after table tennis-specific maximal exercise in elite and sub-elite players.
Twenty-five elite (22.8 ± 6.1 years) and 18 sub-elite (20.1 ± 2.2 years) table tennis players completed a specific table tennis test performing forehand offensive strokes against balls launched from a table tennis robot by an experienced coach at a rate of approximately 60 balls/min until exhaustion. Immediately upon exercise cessation, the participants were placed in a lying position for 60 s of HR recording.
In general, both absolute heart rate and heart rate expressed as a percentage of the peak exercise heart rate were possibly to likely lower (50–92% likelihood of being different; magnitude-based inference), suggesting faster heart rate recovery, in elite players than in sub-elite players.
Therefore, we conclude that elite players have faster HR recovery than sub-elite players and that ultra-short-term recovery can be used to monitor training routines.
KeywordsTraining Recovery Intermittent Endurance Autonomic nervous system
Autonomic nervous system
Heart rate variability
Heart rate recovery
Ultra-short-term heart rate recovery
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
All procedures performed in this study were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its latter amendments or comparable ethical standards.
All participants provided written, informed consent after being informed about the protocol and purpose of the study. It was approved by the Ethics Committee on Human Research of the Faculty of Sport and Tourism, Novi Sad, Serbia that personal rights were respected in this study.
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