Semi-structured physical activity intervention in daily life: a good compromise between effectiveness and feasibility
- 17 Downloads
As older-aged population is continuously increasing, it is essential to promote physical activity (PA) to preserve health and autonomy in daily living. Although several methods have been proposed, combining sustainability and efficacy at the same time is still a challenge.
To evaluate the effects of a semi-structured PA (SSPA) intervention including aerobic as well as strength and flexibility exercise in comparison to generic PA advice (PAAdv) in healthy older adults.
86 sedentary older adults were divided in two groups, SSPA (n = 56) and PAAdv (n = 30). Body weight (BW) and circumferences, blood pressure (BP), submaximal exercise heart rate (HR), as well as Chair Stand Test (CST), Arm Curl Test (ACT), Chair Sit-and-Reach Test (CSRT) and Back Scratch Test (BST) were performed before and after 16 weeks of intervention. SSPA group was further divided in SSPA > 500 and SSPA < 500 according to the total amount of PA performed (cut-off level of 500 MET min/week).
Overall, SSPA groups improved more than the PAAdv group on WC, HC, BP, CST, ACT, CSRT and BST. SSPA > 500 improved more than SSPA < 500 and PAAdv on CST (+ 20.2, + 11.3, + 4.5% respectively), ACT (+ 21.5, + 14.9, − 1.3%, respectively), and CSRT (+ 3.7, + 0.80, + 0.75 cm, respectively), and similarly to SSPA < 500 on BST. Submaximal HR values significantly decreased for the SSPA > 500 and PAAdv groups.
An SSPA program represents an ecological way to enhance fitness in older adults. A greater amount of SSPA (> 500 versus < 500 MET min/week) is associated with higher cardiovascular and muscular fitness benefits.
KeywordsSemi-structured intervention Physical activity Active aging Functional performance
This work was partially funded by: Italian National Center for Disease Control (CCM2013), “La medicina predittiva nella valutazione del rischio di perdita di autonomia”. The authors thank the “Università dell’età libera” of the municipality of Rovereto, “Università della terza età e del tempo disponibile” of the municipality of Trento and dott. Lino Beber for their valuable contributions to the project. We would like to thank subjects for their enthusiastic participation.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and animal rights
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- 10.LaCroix AZ, Guralnik JM, Berkman LF et al (1993) Maintaining mobility in late life. II. Smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and body mass index. Am J Epidemiol 137:858–869. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a116747 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 13.World Health Organization (2010) Global recommendations on physical activity for health. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
- 14.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2013) Adult participation in aerobic and muscle-strengthening physical activities–United States, 2011. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 62:326–330Google Scholar
- 20.Ashworth NL, Chad KE, Harrison EL et al (2005) Home versus center based physical activity programs in older adults. In: Ashworth NL (ed) Cochrane database of systematic reviews. John Wiley, Chichester, p CD004017Google Scholar
- 21.King AC, Rejeski WJ, Buchner DM (1998) Physical activity interventions targeting older adultsaa. This paper was a background paper for the Cooper Institute Conference Series Physical Activity Interventions, an ACSM Specialty Conference. Am J Prev Med 15:316–333. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0749-3797(98)00085-3 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 27.Trost SG, Owen N, Bauman AE et al (2002) Correlates of adults’ participation in physical activity: review and update. Med Sci Sport Exerc 34:1996–2001. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.MSS.0000038974.76900.92 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 33.Buchner DM, Beresford SAA, Larson EB et al (1992) Effects of physical activity on health status in older adults ii: intervention studies. Annu Rev Public Health 13:469–488. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pu.13.050192.002345 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 34.Cadore EL, Rodríguez-Mañas L, Sinclair A, Izquierdo M (2013) Effects of different exercise interventions on risk of falls, gait ability, and balance in physically frail older adults: a systematic review. Rejuvenation Res 16:105–114. https://doi.org/10.1089/rej.2012.1397 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 39.Scheuer J, Tipton CM (1977) Cardiovascular adaptations to physical training. Annu Rev Physiol 39:221–251. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ph.39.030177.001253 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar