Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Acute biochemical and physiological responses to swimming training series performed at intensities based on the 400-m front crawl speed

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this study was to compare blood lactate concentration (LAC), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), tryptophan (TRP), prolactin (PRL), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) plasma concentrations, and TRP/BCAAs ratio along interval training swimming series at 90 and 95% of the mean speed 400-m front crawl (s400).

Methods

Fourteen male swimmers performed two-interval 400-m series (40 s of passive rest) at 90% (s90) and 95% (s95) of the s400, previously determined by 400-m front crawl all test.

Results

Summarized results are: (1) TRP, BCAAs, TRP/BCAAs ratio and NEFA were similar (p > 0.05) between rest and exhaustion conditions; (2) significant increases in LAC, PRL, HR and RPE (p < 0.05) for both series (s90 and s95).

Conclusions

The findings of the present study indicate that during swimming series of interval training at 90 and 95% s400, there is maintenance of TRP, BCAA, TRP/BCAAs ratio and NEFA and increases in the RPE, PRL, LAC and HR, which can be explained by the intensities and the duration of exercise. Increased PRL can be related to central fatigue in these intensities.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. 1.

    Fernandes RJ, Cardoso CS, Soares SM, Ascensão A, Colaço PJ, Vilas-Boas JP (2003) The limit and VO2 slow component at intensities corresponding to VO2max in swimmers. Int J Sports Med 24:576–581

  2. 2.

    Dekerle J, Pelayo P (2011) Assessing aerobic endurance in swimming. In: Seifert L, Chollet D (eds) World book of swimming: from science to performance. Nova Science, New York, pp 276–293

  3. 3.

    Greco CC, Oliveira MFM, Caputo F, Denadai BS, Dekerle J (2013) How narrow is the spectrum of submaximal speeds in swimming? J Streng Cond Res 27(5):1450–1454

  4. 4.

    Fernandes RJ, Keskinen KL, Colaço P, Querido AJ, Machado LJ, Morais PA, Novais DQ, Marinho DA, Vilas-Boas JP (2008) Time limit at VO2max in elite swimmers. Int J Sports Med 29(2):145–150

  5. 5.

    Rodriguez FA (2000) Maximal oxygen uptake and cardiorespiratory response to maximal 400-m free swimming. Running and cycling tests in competitive swimmers. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 40:87–95

  6. 6.

    Libicz S, Roels B, Millet GP (2005) VO2 responses to intermittent swimming sets at velocity associated with VO2max. Can J Appl Physiol 30(5):543–553

  7. 7.

    Marinho DA, Vilas-Boas JP, Keskinen KL, Rodriguez FA, Soares SM, Carmo CM, Vilar SO, Fernandes RJ (2006) The behaviour of kinematic parameters during a time to exhaustion test at VO2max in elite swimmers. J Mov Stud 51:01–010

  8. 8.

    Blomstrand E (2001) Amino acids and central fatigue. Amino Acids 20(1):25–34

  9. 9.

    Newsholme EA, Leech AR (1983) Biochemistry for the medical sciences. Wiley, Chichester and New York, pp 784–786

  10. 10.

    Curzon G, Friedel J, Knott PJ (1973) The effect of fatty acids on the binding of tryptophan to plasma protein. Nature 242(5394):198–200

  11. 11.

    Fernstrom JD, Wurtmen RJ (1972) Elevation of plasma tryptophan by insulin in rat. Metabolism 21(4):337–342

  12. 12.

    Blomstrand E (2006) A role for branched-chain amino acids in reducing central fatigue. J Nutr 136(2):544S-547

  13. 13.

    Wright HE, McLellan TM, Friesen BJ, Casa DJ, Kenny GP (2012) Influence of circulating cytokines on prolactin during slow vs. fast exertional heat stress followed by active or passive recovery. J Appl Physiol 113(4):574–583

  14. 14.

    Struder HK, Weicker H (2001) Physiology and pathophysiology of the serotonergic system and its implications on mental and physical performance. Part I. Int J Sports Med 22(7):467–481

  15. 15.

    Dekerle J, Brickley G, Alberty M, Pelayo P (2010) Characterising the slope of the distance-time relationship in swimming. J Sci Med Sport 13(3):365–370

  16. 16.

    Borg GA (1982) Psychophysical bases of perceived exertion. Med Sci Sports Exerc 14(5):377–381

  17. 17.

    Zacca R, Fernandes RJ, Pyne DB, Castro FAS (2016) Swimming training assessment: the critical velocity and the 400-m test for age-group swimmers. J Strength Cond Res 30(5):1365–1372

  18. 18.

    Joseph MH, Marsden CA (1986) Amino acids and small peptides. In: Lim CK (ed) HPLC of small peptides. IRL, Oxford, pp 13–27

  19. 19.

    Fernstrom MH, Massoudi MS, Fernstrom JD (1990) Effect of 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)-tetralin on the tryptophan-induced increase in 5-hydroxytryptophan accumulation in rat brain. Life Sci 47(4):283–289

  20. 20.

    Veloso D, Veech RL (1975) Enzymatic determination of long-chain fatty acyl-CoA. Methods Enzymol 35:273–278

  21. 21.

    Ashby CD (1987) Prolactin. In: Methods in clinical chemistry. C.V. Mosby, St. Louis

  22. 22.

    Cohen J (1988) Statistical power analysis for the behavioral. Sci Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc Publ 2:281–285

  23. 23.

    Daniels J, Scardina N, Hayes J (1986) Elite and subelite female middle and long-distance runners. In: Landers DM (ed) Sport and elite performers. Human Kinetics, Champaign, pp 57–72

  24. 24.

    Ribeiro LF, Lima MC, Gobatto CA (2010) Changes in physiological and stroking parameters during interval swims at the slope of the d-t relationship. J Sci Med Sport 13(1):141–145

  25. 25.

    Dekerle J, Pelayo P, Clipet B, Depretz S, Lefevre T, Sidney M (2005) Critical swimming speed does not represent the speed at maximal lactate steady state. Int J Sports Med 26(7):524–530

  26. 26.

    Baker JS, Morgan R, Hullin D, Castell LM, Bailey DM, Davies B (2006) Changes in blood markers of serotoninergic activity following high intensity cycle ergometer exercise. Res Sports Med 14(3):191–203

  27. 27.

    Hackney AC, Premo MC, McMurray RG (1995) Influence of aerobic versus anaerobic exercise on the relationship between reproductive hormones in men. J Sports Sci 13(4):305–311

  28. 28.

    Fernstrom JD, Fernstrom MH (2006) Exercise, serum free tryptophan, and central fatigue. J Nutr 136(2):553S–559S

  29. 29.

    Crewe H, Tucker R, Noakes TD (2008) The rate of increase in rating of perceived exertion predicts the duration of exercise to fatigue at a fixed power output in different environmental conditions. Eur J App Physiol 103:569–577

  30. 30.

    Meeusen R, Piacentini MF, Van Den Eynde S, Magnus L, De Meirleir K (2001) Exercise performance is not influenced by a 5-HT reuptake inhibitor. Int J Sports Med 22(5):329–336

  31. 31.

    Pitsiladis YP, Strachan AT, Davidson I, Maughan RJ (2002) Hyperprolactinaemia during prolonged exercise in the heat: evidence for a centrally mediated component of fatigue in trained cyclists. Exp Physiol 87(2):215–226

  32. 32.

    Nybo L, Secher NH (2004) Cerebral perturbations provoked by prolonged exercise. Progress Neurobiol 72(4):23–61

Download references

Acknowledgements

We thank CNPq (Brazil) for the research grant awarded, and the subjects that participated in data collection.

Author information

Correspondence to Marcos Franken.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in this study involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments.

Financial support

The authors declare that they have financial support of CNPq.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Franken, M., Mazzola, P.N., Dutra-Filho, C.S. et al. Acute biochemical and physiological responses to swimming training series performed at intensities based on the 400-m front crawl speed. Sport Sci Health 14, 633–638 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11332-018-0472-z

Download citation

Keywords

  • Front-crawl stroke
  • Endurance
  • Tryptophan
  • Branched-chain amino acids
  • Central fatigue