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Acute biochemical and physiological responses to swimming training series performed at intensities based on the 400-m front crawl speed



The objective of this study was to compare blood lactate concentration (LAC), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), tryptophan (TRP), prolactin (PRL), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) plasma concentrations, and TRP/BCAAs ratio along interval training swimming series at 90 and 95% of the mean speed 400-m front crawl (s400).


Fourteen male swimmers performed two-interval 400-m series (40 s of passive rest) at 90% (s90) and 95% (s95) of the s400, previously determined by 400-m front crawl all test.


Summarized results are: (1) TRP, BCAAs, TRP/BCAAs ratio and NEFA were similar (p > 0.05) between rest and exhaustion conditions; (2) significant increases in LAC, PRL, HR and RPE (p < 0.05) for both series (s90 and s95).


The findings of the present study indicate that during swimming series of interval training at 90 and 95% s400, there is maintenance of TRP, BCAA, TRP/BCAAs ratio and NEFA and increases in the RPE, PRL, LAC and HR, which can be explained by the intensities and the duration of exercise. Increased PRL can be related to central fatigue in these intensities.

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We thank CNPq (Brazil) for the research grant awarded, and the subjects that participated in data collection.

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Correspondence to Marcos Franken.

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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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All procedures performed in this study involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments.

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The authors declare that they have financial support of CNPq.

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Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

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Franken, M., Mazzola, P.N., Dutra-Filho, C.S. et al. Acute biochemical and physiological responses to swimming training series performed at intensities based on the 400-m front crawl speed. Sport Sci Health 14, 633–638 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11332-018-0472-z

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  • Front-crawl stroke
  • Endurance
  • Tryptophan
  • Branched-chain amino acids
  • Central fatigue