Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

The angiotensin I-converting enzyme I/D gene polymorphism in well-trained Malaysian athletes

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) I/D gene polymorphism on athletic status and physical performance of well-trained Malaysian athletes.

Methods

180 well-trained athletes (34 endurance, 41 strength/power, and 105 intermittent athletes) and 180 sedentary controls involved in the study. A sample of DNA was retrieved via buccal cell from each subject and the polymorphism was then identified through Polymerase Chain Reaction. The endurance performance and leg strength of athletes were evaluated with twenty meters Yo–Yo intermittent recovery level 2 and maximal voluntary contraction tests, respectively. Chi-square test and one-way ANOVA were used for data analysis.

Results

The II genotype was more prevalent among the endurance athletes (0.38) compared to the intermittent athletes (0.14), strength/power athletes (0.05), and controls (0.31) (p = 0.00). Conversely, the DD genotype was more prevalent among the strength/power athletes (0.66) compared to the endurance athletes (0.26), intermittent athletes (0.47), and controls (0.15). The endurance performance was not significantly associated with ACE genotype in the athletes (p = 0.828). However, athletes with the DD genotype had a better result for leg strength (113.8 ± 36.2) compared to those with the II (96.2 ± 28.0) and the ID (112.2 ± 33.5) genotypes (p = 0.047).

Conclusion

This study reaffirms previous finding reported in Caucasian samples for the association of I and D alleles with endurance and strength/power performance, respectively. The finding of this study highlights the importance of genetic screening in identifying future sporting talents.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  1. 1.

    Goh KP, Chew K, Koh A, Guan M, Wong YS, Sum CF (2009) The relationship between ACE gene ID polymorphism and aerobic capacity in Asian rugby players. Singap Med J 50(10):997–1003

  2. 2.

    Voroshin IN, Astratenkova IV (2008) Dependence of endurance performance on ACE gene polymorphism in athletes. Hum Physiol 34(1):117–119. doi:10.1134/s0362119708010180

  3. 3.

    Shleptsova VA, Malyuchenko NV, Kulikova MA, Timofeeva MA, Shchegolkova JV, Vedjakov AM, Sysoeva OV, Tonevitsky AG (2008) Role of renin-angiotensin system in the formation of emotional state in humans. Bull Exp Biol Med 145(4):391–394

  4. 4.

    Cam S, Colakoglu M, Colakoglu S, Sekuri C, Berdeli A (2007) ACE I/D gene polymorphism and aerobic endurance development in response to training in a non-elite female cohort. J Sports Med Phys Fit 47(2):234–238

  5. 5.

    Ma F, Yang Y, Li X, Zhou F, Gao C, Li M, Gao L (2013) The association of sport performance with ACE and ACTN3 genetic polymorphisms: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One 8(1):e54685. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054685

  6. 6.

    Myerson S, Hemingway H, Budget R, Martin J, Humphries S, Montgomery H (1999) Human angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene and endurance performance. J Appl Physiol (1985) 87(4):1313–1316

  7. 7.

    Alvarez R, Terrados N, Ortolano R, Iglesias-Cubero G, Reguero JR, Batalla A, Cortina A, Fernandez-Garcia B, Rodriguez C, Braga S, Alvarez V, Coto E (2000) Genetic variation in the renin-angiotensin system and athletic performance. Eur J Appl Physiol 82(1–2):117–120. doi:10.1007/s004210050660

  8. 8.

    Hruskovicova H, Dzurenkova D, Selingerova M, Bohus B, Timkanicova B, Kovacs L (2006) The angiotensin converting enzyme I/D polymorphism in long distance runners. J Sports Med Phys Fit 46(3):509–513

  9. 9.

    Oh SD (2007) The distribution of I/D polymorphism in the ACE gene among Korean male elite athletes. J Sports Med Phys Fit 47(2):250–254

  10. 10.

    Holdys J, Kryściak J, Stanisławski D, Gronek P (2011) ACE I/D gene polymorphism in athletes of various sports disciplines. Hum Mov 12(3):223–231. doi:10.2478/v10038-011-0022-x

  11. 11.

    Gayagay G, Yu B, Hambly B, Boston T, Hahn A, Celermajer DS, Trent RJ (1998) Elite endurance athletes and the ACE I allele-the role of genes in athletic performance. Hum Genet 103(1):48–50

  12. 12.

    Cieszczyk P, Krupecki K, Maciejewska A, Sawczuk M (2009) The angiotensin converting enzyme gene I/D polymorphism in Polish rowers. Int J of Sports Med 30(8):624–627. doi:10.1055/s-0029-1202825

  13. 13.

    Shenoy S, Tandon S, Sandhu J, Bhanwer AS (2010) Association of angiotensin converting enzyme gene polymorphism and Indian Army triathletes performance. Asian J Sports Med 1(3):143–150

  14. 14.

    Tsianos G, Sanders J, Dhamrait S, Humphries S, Grant S, Montgomery H (2004) The ACE gene insertion/deletion polymorphism and elite endurance swimming. Eur J Appl Physiol 92(3):360–362. doi:10.1007/s00421-004-1120-7

  15. 15.

    Paulauskas A, Danileviciutė A, Povilaitis T, Poderis J (2009) Genetic variability associated with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphism in sportsmen pursuing different sports. Proc Latv Acad Sci B Nat Exact Appl Sci 63(1–2):9–13. doi:10.2478/v10046-009-0012-y

  16. 16.

    Woods D, Hickman M, Jamshidi Y, Brull D, Vassiliou V, Jones A, Humphries S, Montgomery H (2001) Elite swimmers and the D allele of the ACE I/D polymorphism. Hum Genet 108(3):230–232

  17. 17.

    Costa AM, Silva AJ, Garrido ND, Louro H, Marinho DA, Marques MC, Breitenfeld L (2009) Angiotensin-converting enzyme genotype affects skeletal muscle strength in elite athletes. J Sports Sci Med 8:410–418

  18. 18.

    Nazarov IB, Woods DR, Montgomery HE, Shneider OV, Kazakov VI, Tomilin NV, Rogozkin VA (2001) The angiotensin converting enzyme I/D polymorphism in Russian athletes. Euro J Hum Genet 9(10):797–801. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5200711

  19. 19.

    Rigat B, Hubert C, Alhenc-Gelas F, Cambien F, Corvol P, Soubrier F (1990) An insertion/deletion polymorphism in the angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene accounting for half the variance of serum enzyme levels. J Clin Investig 86(4):1343–1346. doi:10.1172/JCI114844

  20. 20.

    Hagberg JM, McCole SD, Brown MD, Ferrell RE, Wilund KR, Huberty A, Douglass LW, Moore GE (2002) ACE insertion/deletion polymorphism and submaximal exercise hemodynamics in postmenopausal women. J Appl Physiol (1985) 92(3):1083–1088. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00135.2001

  21. 21.

    Kasikcioglu E, Kayserilioglu A, Ciloglu F, Akhan H, Oflaz H, Yildiz S, Peker I (2004) Angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphism, left ventricular remodeling, and exercise capacity in strength-trained athletes. Heart Vessels 19(6):287–293

  22. 22.

    Montgomery HE, Clarkson P, Dollery CM, Prasad K, Losi MA, Hemingway H, Statters D, Jubb M, Girvain M, Varnava A, World M, Deanfield J, Talmud P, McEwan JR, McKenna WJ, Humphries S (1997) Association of angiotensin-converting enzyme gene I/D polymorphism with change in left ventricular mass in response to physical training. Circulation 96(3):741–747

  23. 23.

    Hernández D, de la Rosa A, Barragán A, Barrios Y, Salido E, Torres A, Martín B, Laynez I, Duque A, De Vera A, Lorenzo V, González A (2003) The ACE/DD genotype is associated with the extent of exercise-induced left ventricular growth in endurance athletes. J Am Coll Cardiol 42(3):527–532

  24. 24.

    Charbonneau D (2007) Association between ACE genotype and skeletal muscle strength and volume, and their response to strength training in older adults. University of Maryland

  25. 25.

    Yamin C, Amir O, Sagiv M, Attias E, Meckel Y, Eynon N, Amir RE (2007) ACE ID genotype affects blood creatine kinase response to eccentric exercise. J Appl Physiol (1985) 103(6):2057–2061. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00867.2007

  26. 26.

    Ng P (2009) Angiotensin converting enzyme and vascular endothelial growth factor responses to exercise training in claudicants: the role of ace inhibition. Royal Free and University College Hospital Medical School

  27. 27.

    Brewster UC, Perazella MA (2004) The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the kidney: effects on kidney disease. Am J Med 116(4):263–272. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2003.09.034

  28. 28.

    Folland J, Leach B, Little T, Hawker K, Myerson S, Montgomery H, Jones D (2000) Angiotensin-converting enzyme genotype affects the response of human skeletal muscle to functional overload. Exp Physiol 85(5):575–579

  29. 29.

    Jayapalan JJ, Muniandy S, Chan SP (2008) Angiotensin-1 converting enzyme I/D gene polymorphism: scenario in Malaysia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 39(5):917–921

  30. 30.

    Melton T, Peterson R, Redd AJ, Saha N, Sofro ASM, Martinson J, Stoneking M (1995) Polynesian genetic affinities with Southeast Asian populations as identified by mtDNA analysis. Am J Hum Genet 57:403–414

  31. 31.

    Movva S, Alluri RV, Komandur S, Vattam K, Eppa K, Mukkavali KK, Mubigonda S, Saharia S, Shastry JC, Hasan Q (2007) Relationship of angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphism with nephropathy associated with Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Asian Indians. J Diabetes Complicat 21(4):237–241. doi:10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2006.07.001

  32. 32.

    Nitiyanant W, Sriussadaporn S, Ploybutr S, Watanakejorn P, Tunlakit M, Bejrachandra S (1997) Angiotensin converting enzyme gene polymorphism in healthy Thais and patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. J Med Assoc Thai 80(12):747–752

  33. 33.

    Sprovieri SR, Sens YA (2005) Polymorphisms of the renin-angiotensin system genes in Brazilian patients with lupus nephropathy. Lupus 14(5):356–362

  34. 34.

    Salem AH (2008) Distribution of angiotensin converting enzyme insertion/deletion gene polymorphism among two Arab populations. Suez Canal Univ Med J 11(1):125–130

  35. 35.

    Pereira AC, Mota GA, Bensenor I, Lotufo PA, Krieger JE (2001) Effect of race, genetic population structure, and genetic models in two-locus association studies: clustering of functional renin-angiotensin system gene variants in hypertension association studies. Braz J Med Biol Res 34(11):1421–1428

  36. 36.

    Batzer MA, Arcot SS, Phinney JW, Alegria-Hartman M, Kass DH, Milligan SM, Kimpton C, Gill P, Hochmeister M, Ioannou PA, Herrera RJ, Boudreau DA, Scheer WD, Keats BJ, Deininger PL, Stoneking M (1996) Genetic variation of recent Alu insertions in human populations. J Mol Evol 42(1):22–29

  37. 37.

    Bangsbo J, Iaia FM, Krustrup P (2008) The Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test: a useful tool for evaluation of physical performance in intermittent sports. Sports Med 38(1):37–51

  38. 38.

    Min S-K, Takahashi K, Ishigami H, Hiranuma K, Mizuno M, Ishii T, Kim C-S, Nakazato K (2009) Is there a gender difference between ACE gene and race distance? Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 34(5):926–932. doi:10.1139/h09-097

  39. 39.

    Ahmetov II, Williams AG, Popov DV, Lyubaeva EV, Hakimullina AM, Fedotovskaya ON, Mozhayskaya IA, Vinogradova OL, Astratenkova IV, Montgomery HE, Rogozkin VA (2009) The combined impact of metabolic gene polymorphisms on elite endurance athlete status and related phenotypes. Hum Genet 126(6):751–761

  40. 40.

    Mayne IPM, K. (2006) Examination of the ACE and ACTN3 genes in UTC varsity athletes and sedentary students., The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

  41. 41.

    Collins M, Xenophontos SL, Cariolou MA, Mokone GG, Hudson DE, Anastasiades L, Noakes TD (2004) The ACE gene and endurance performance during the South African Ironman Triathlons. Med Sci Sports Exerc 36(8):1314–1320

  42. 42.

    Kikuchi N, Min SK, Ueda D, Igawa S, Nakazato K (2012) Higher frequency of the ACTN3 R allele + ACE DD genotype in Japanese elite wrestlers. J Strength Cond Res 26(12):3275–3280

  43. 43.

    Costa AM, Breitenfeld L, Silva AJ, Pereira A, Izquierdo M, Marques MC (2012) Genetic inheritance effects on endurance and muscle strength: an update. Sports Med 42(6):449–458. doi:10.2165/11650560-000000000-00000

  44. 44.

    Williams AG, Day SH, Folland JP, Gohlke P, Dhamrait S, Montgomery HE (2005) Circulating angiotensin converting enzyme activity is correlated with muscle strength. Med Sci Sports Exerc 37(6):944–948

  45. 45.

    Giaccaglia V, Nicklas B, Kritchevsky S, Mychalecky J, Messier S, Bleecker E, Pahor M (2008) Interaction between angiotensin converting enzyme insertion/deletion genotype and exercise training on knee extensor strength in older individuals. Int J Sports Med 29(1):40–44

  46. 46.

    Gineviciene V, Pranculis A, Jakaitiene A, Milasius K, Kucinskas V (2011) Genetic variation of the human ACE and ACTN3 genes and their association with functional muscle properties in Lithuanian elite athletes. Medicina (Kaunas) 47(5):284–290 (pii: 1105-06e)

  47. 47.

    Taylor RR, Mamotte CD, Fallon K, van Bockxmeer FM (1999) Elite athletes and the gene for angiotensin-converting enzyme. J Appl Physiol (1985) 87(3):1035–1037

  48. 48.

    Karjalainen J, Kujala UM, Stolt A, Mantysaari M, Viitasalo M, Kainulainen K, Kontula K (1999) Angiotensinogen gene M235T polymorphism predicts left ventricular hypertrophy in endurance athletes. J Am Coll Cardiol 34(2):494–499 (pii: S0735-1097(99)00199-0)

  49. 49.

    Rankinen T, Wolfarth B, Simoneau JA, Maier-Lenz D, Rauramaa R, Rivera MA, Boulay MR, Chagnon YC, Perusse L, Keul J, Bouchard C (2000) No association between the angiotensin-converting enzyme ID polymorphism and elite endurance athlete status. J Appl Physiol (1985) 88(5):1571–1575

  50. 50.

    Sonna LA, Sharp MA, Knapik JJ, Cullivan M, Angel KC, Patton JF, Lilly CM (2001) Angiotensin-converting enzyme genotype and physical performance during US Army basic training. J Appl Physiol (1985) 91(3):1355–1363

  51. 51.

    Rattigan S, Dora K, Tong A, Clark M (1996) Perfused skeletal muscle contraction and metabolism improved by angiotensin II mediated vasoconstriction. Am J Physiol 271:96–103

Download references

Acknowledgments

This study was funded by a Sport Grant of Higher Education, Ministry of Education Malaysia (MOE) (304/CIPPT/650551/K134). The authors thank the volunteers who made this study possible. They would also like to thank Universiti Sains Malaysia, Universiti Teknologi Mara, Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Malaysia, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Universiti Utara Malaysia, and Kolej Komuniti Kepala Batas for granting permission for the students to participate in this study.

Conflict of interest

There is no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in this study involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Human Research Ethics Committee, Universiti Sains Malaysia.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Author information

Correspondence to Ahmad Munir Che Muhammed.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ahmad Yusof, H., Singh, R., Zainuddin, Z. et al. The angiotensin I-converting enzyme I/D gene polymorphism in well-trained Malaysian athletes. Sport Sci Health 11, 187–193 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11332-015-0222-4

Download citation

Keywords

  • ACE
  • Insertion/deletion
  • Athletic performance
  • Malaysian