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The angiotensin I-converting enzyme I/D gene polymorphism in well-trained Malaysian athletes



The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) I/D gene polymorphism on athletic status and physical performance of well-trained Malaysian athletes.


180 well-trained athletes (34 endurance, 41 strength/power, and 105 intermittent athletes) and 180 sedentary controls involved in the study. A sample of DNA was retrieved via buccal cell from each subject and the polymorphism was then identified through Polymerase Chain Reaction. The endurance performance and leg strength of athletes were evaluated with twenty meters Yo–Yo intermittent recovery level 2 and maximal voluntary contraction tests, respectively. Chi-square test and one-way ANOVA were used for data analysis.


The II genotype was more prevalent among the endurance athletes (0.38) compared to the intermittent athletes (0.14), strength/power athletes (0.05), and controls (0.31) (p = 0.00). Conversely, the DD genotype was more prevalent among the strength/power athletes (0.66) compared to the endurance athletes (0.26), intermittent athletes (0.47), and controls (0.15). The endurance performance was not significantly associated with ACE genotype in the athletes (p = 0.828). However, athletes with the DD genotype had a better result for leg strength (113.8 ± 36.2) compared to those with the II (96.2 ± 28.0) and the ID (112.2 ± 33.5) genotypes (p = 0.047).


This study reaffirms previous finding reported in Caucasian samples for the association of I and D alleles with endurance and strength/power performance, respectively. The finding of this study highlights the importance of genetic screening in identifying future sporting talents.

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This study was funded by a Sport Grant of Higher Education, Ministry of Education Malaysia (MOE) (304/CIPPT/650551/K134). The authors thank the volunteers who made this study possible. They would also like to thank Universiti Sains Malaysia, Universiti Teknologi Mara, Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Malaysia, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Universiti Utara Malaysia, and Kolej Komuniti Kepala Batas for granting permission for the students to participate in this study.

Conflict of interest

There is no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in this study involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Human Research Ethics Committee, Universiti Sains Malaysia.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Author information

Correspondence to Ahmad Munir Che Muhammed.

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Ahmad Yusof, H., Singh, R., Zainuddin, Z. et al. The angiotensin I-converting enzyme I/D gene polymorphism in well-trained Malaysian athletes. Sport Sci Health 11, 187–193 (2015).

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  • ACE
  • Insertion/deletion
  • Athletic performance
  • Malaysian