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Imaging of shoulder pain in overhead throwing athletes


Overhead sports are widely practiced around the world and overhead athletes can present with pain and dysfunction in the throwing shoulder, generally due to degenerative changes secondary to overuse. Numerous etiologies can be taken into account, including rotator cuff and glenoid labrum tears, biceps pathologies, internal impingement, and gleno-humeral instability. In this setting, imaging plays a central role in early diagnosis, thus allowing for a prompt management, correct rehabilitation, and quick return to competition. This review is aimed to discuss the role of imaging to diagnose the most common types of overhead-related shoulder injuries.

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Conflict of interest

Authors have no conflict of interest to disclose in regard to the present paper.

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Correspondence to Luca Maria Sconfienza.

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Aliprandi, A., Sdao, S., Cannaò, P.M. et al. Imaging of shoulder pain in overhead throwing athletes. Sport Sci Health 9, 81–88 (2013).

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  • Overhead sports
  • Shoulder
  • Rotator cuff
  • Imaging
  • Magnetic resonance