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Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie

, Volume 7, Issue 2, pp 43–55 | Cite as

Psychologische Störungen des autobiografischen Gedächtnisses – Einflüsse von Trauma, Dissoziation und PTSD

  • Hans-Peter KapfhammerEmail author
Schwerpunkt trauma und erinnerung

Zusammenfassung

Funktionstüchtige neuropsychologische und neurobiologische Gedächtnissysteme sind die Voraussetzung für die Kohärenz und Kontinuität einer Selbststruktur in der biographischen Entwicklung. Das autobiographische Gedächtnis ist die ontogenetisch jüngste und strukturell höchste Stufe des episodischen Gedächtnisses, das zusammen mit dem semantischen Gedächtnis das explizite oder deklarative Gedächtnis umfasst und von mehreren Subsystemen des impliziten Gedächtnisses unterschieden wird. Das autobiographische Gedächtnis ist speziell in dissoziativen Störungen beeinträchtigt. Die dissoziative Amnesie wird epidemiologisch, klinisch, verlaufsorientiert und ätiopathogenetisch dargestellt. Eine breite Differenzialdiagnose gegenüber anderen psychischen, neurologischen und internistischen Störungen ist vorzunehmen. Da der klinische Dissoziationsbegriff stark in einen traumatologischen Bedingungskontext gestellt wird, schließt sich eine Darstellung des Zusammenhangs von Trauma und traumatischer Erinnerung im Allgemeinen und PTSD und Traumagedächtnis im Speziellen an.

Schlüsselwörter

Autobiografisches Gedächtnis Dissoziation dissoziative Amnesie Trauma Traumagedächtnis PTSD 

Summary

Intact neuropsychological and neurobiological memory systems are precondition to any coherence and continuity of self structure during biography. Autobiographical memory is the ontogenetically most recent and most highly structured part of the episodic memory together with the semantic memory comprising the declarative or explicit memory that again has to be differentiated from various subsystems of the implicit memory. Autobiographical memory is paradigmatically impaired in dissociative disorders. A survey on epidemiological, clinical, course of illness-related, and etiopathogenetic characteristics of dissociative amnesia is given. A broad differential diagnosis has to be taken into account. As the clinical concept of dissociation is considered first and foremost within a context of trauma, the relation of trauma and memory in general, of PTSD and trauma memory in special is outlined.

Keywords

Autobiographical memory dissociation dissociative amnesia trauma trauma memory PTSD 

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© Springer Vienna 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Univ.-Klinik für PsychiatrieMedizinische Universität GrazGrazÖsterreich

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