Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie

, Volume 3, Issue 3, pp 81–85 | Cite as

Geschlechtsrollennonkonformität in der Kindheit als Suizidrisikofaktor am Beispiel von homo- und bisexuellen Personen

  • Martin Plöderl
  • Kurosch Yazdi
  • Karl Kralovec
  • Reinhold Fartacek
Originalarbeit

Zusammenfassung

Das Abweichen von stereotypen Geschlechtsrollen (Geschlechtsrollennonkonformität) ist von Kindheit an mit negativen sozialen Reaktionen verbunden. Dieser Artikel geht der Frage nach, inwieweit Geschlechtsrollennonkonformität in der Kindheit mit psychischen Problemen bis hin zur Suizidalität im Erwachsenenalter verbunden ist. Homosexuelle berichten im Vergleich zu heterosexuellen Personen über deutlich mehr Geschlechtsrollennonkonformität in der Kindheit und über ein deutlich höheres Suizidrisiko im Jugend- und Erwachsenenalter. Daher eignen sich Studien an homosexuellen Menschen besonders, um die langfristigen Konsequenzen bei frühen Abweichungen von stereotypen Geschlechtsrollen zu untersuchen. Ein Überblick über entsprechende empirische Untersuchungen untermauert die Ansicht, dass Geschlechtsrollennonkonformität in der Kindheit das Suizidrisiko langfristig erhöhen kann, zumindest bei homosexuellen, aber vermutlich aber auch bei heterosexuellen Personen. Der problematische Effekt von Geschlechtsrollennonkonformität lässt sich gut durch negative soziale Reaktionen und deren Internalisierung erklären. Dies sollte in der psychiatrisch/psychotherapeutischen Praxis berücksichtigt werden.

Schlüsselwörter

Geschlechtsrollennonkonformität Homosexualität Sexuelle Orientierung Suizid 

Childhood gender nonconformity as a risk factor for suicide demonstrated among homosexual and bisexual individuals

Summary

Deviance from stereotypical gender roles (gender role nonconformity) is associated with negative social reactions from childhood onwards. Our article explores how childhood gender nonconformity correlates with psychological distress and even suicidality in adulthood. Compared to heterosexuals, homosexual individuals report more childhood gender nonconformity and a substantially increased suicide risk in adolescence and adulthood. Therefore, studies on homosexual individuals are especially valuable for investigating long-term consequences of early gender role nonconformity. An overview of related empirical studies supports the hypothesis that childhood gender nonconformity increases suicide risk enduringly. This is true at least for homosexual, but probably for heterosexual individuals as well. The problematic effect of gender nonconformity is well explained by negative social consequences that also might be internalized. This should be considered in the psychiatric and psychotherapeutic practice.

Keywords

Gender role nonconformity Homosexuality Sexual orientation Suicide 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martin Plöderl
    • 1
  • Kurosch Yazdi
  • Karl Kralovec
  • Reinhold Fartacek
  1. 1.Forschungsprogramm Suizidprävention am Institut für Public HealthParacelsus Medizinische Privatuniversität SalzburgSalzburgAustria

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