Sleep and Breathing

, Volume 23, Issue 1, pp 303–309 | Cite as

HLA-DQB1*06:02 allele frequency and clinic-polysomnographic features in Saudi Arabian patients with narcolepsy

  • Saad M. Al Shareef
  • Eiman AlAnbay
  • Mujahed A. AlKhathlan
  • Zahid Shakoor
  • Mustafa Alnasser
  • Khalid D. Hamam
  • Adel S. Alharbi
  • Aljohara S. Almeneessier
  • Ahmed S. BaHammamEmail author
Neurology • Original Article



Narcolepsy is an uncommon neurological disorder characterised by irresistible spells of sleep associated with abnormal rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. The association between narcolepsy and human leukocyte antigen HLA- DQB1*06:02 has been established elsewhere but remains to be investigated among Saudi Arabian patients with narcolepsy.


A total of 29 Saudi patients with type I or type 2 narcolepsy comprising of 23 (79%) males and 6 (21%) females with a mean age of 17.2 ± 9.6 years were included in this study. Type 1 or type 2 narcolepsy was diagnosed by full polysomnography followed by a multiple sleep latency test in accordance with International Classifications of Sleep Disorders-3 criteria. HLA typing for DQB1 alleles was performed by polymerase chain reaction and hybridization with sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes. Differences in clinical and sleep parameters were compared by univariable analyses. HLA-DQB1*06:02 frequency was systematically compared with the published literature.


Type 1 narcolepsy was diagnosed in 19/29 (65.5%) patients, whereas 10/29 (34.5%) patients had type 2 narcolepsy. DQB1*06:02 was present in 25/29 (86.2%) patients; 15/19 (78.9%) narcolepsy type 1 patients and 10/10 (100%) narcolepsy type 2 patients harboured the DQB1*06:02 allele. REM latency was significantly lower in DQB1*06:02-positive patients compared to DQB1*06:02-negative patients (17.6 ± 32.3 min vs. 106.0 ± 86.0 min; p = 0.025). Epworth Sleepiness Scale scores were significantly higher among type 1 than type 2 narcolepsy patients (19.7 ± 3.2 vs 15.3 ± 3.6; p = 0.02).


DQB1*06:02 allele frequencies among Saudi patients with narcolepsy were consistent with previously published data.


Sleep Hypersomnia Haplotype Sleep studies Autoimmune disease, DQB1*06:02 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Saad M. Al Shareef
    • 1
  • Eiman AlAnbay
    • 2
  • Mujahed A. AlKhathlan
    • 3
  • Zahid Shakoor
    • 4
  • Mustafa Alnasser
    • 2
  • Khalid D. Hamam
    • 4
  • Adel S. Alharbi
    • 5
  • Aljohara S. Almeneessier
    • 2
    • 6
  • Ahmed S. BaHammam
    • 2
    • 7
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Internal Medicine, College of MedicineAl Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU)RiyadhSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.University Sleep Disorders Center, College of MedicineKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  3. 3.King Abdullah Scholarship Program, Ministry of EducationRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  4. 4.Department of Pathology, College of MedicineKing Khalid University Hospital, King Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  5. 5.Pediatrics Sleep Disorders CenterPrince Sultan Military Medical CityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  6. 6.Family and Community Medicine Department, College of MedicineKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  7. 7.National Plan for Science and Technology, College of MedicineKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia

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