A French update on the Self-Efficacy Measure for Sleep Apnea (SEMSA) to assess continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) use
The Self-Efficacy Measure for Sleep Apnea (SEMSA) is a 26-item self-questionnaire composed of three factors: risk perception of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), benefit of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), and self-efficacy (the confidence to engage in CPAP use). It is used to evaluate health beliefs about OSAS and CPAP in order to optimize CPAP use. The purpose of this study was to design and validate a French version of the SEMSA.
A forward-backward translation of the SEMSA was performed. Subjects with OSAS treated by CPAP and followed by our sleep clinic were invited to complete the questionnaire. The psychometric properties of the French SEMSA version were analyzed in terms of its construct validity (with confirmatory factor analysis, CFA), internal structural validity (Cronbach’s alpha coefficient), and external validity (Pearson’s correlation between SEMSA score and duration of CPAP use).
Two hundred eighty-eight subjects filled in the questionnaire. The mean age was 63.16 ± 12.73 years. The number of years since the beginning of CPAP treatment was 6.58 ± 6.03 years. The mean CPAP use duration was 6.19 ± 2.03 h/night. CFA was unsatisfactory (RMSEA = 0.066 and CFI = 0.88). The exploratory factor analysis revealed a fourth factor named “cardiovascular risk” factor. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.886. The correlation between the “self-efficacy” factor and the duration of CPAP use was significant (r = 0.26, p ≤ 0.001).
The French version of the SEMSA is a psychometrically acceptable self-report questionnaire for measuring health beliefs and behavior in French patients with OSAS treated with CPAP. Such translation and validation should lead to the adoption of validated psychosocial methods for improving CPAP use.
KeywordsSleep apnea Self-efficacy CPAP adherence CPAP treatment Validation
Special thanks to VitalAire France, home healthcare provider, activity of Air Liquide HealthCare, and Muriel Bacarisse for collecting and monitoring data and for administrative, technical, and logistic support.
Many thanks to Ray Cooke for translation of the SEMSA items and copy-editing the paper.
Compliance with ethical standards
The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and French Good Clinical Practices.
Conflict of interest
Dr. Weaver is Principal Investigator for the University of Illinois at Chicago site for the Jazz Pharmaceuticals 110 pharmaceutical clinical trial. She also receives royalty fees from the following companies for use of the Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire: Philips Respironics, Nyxoah, ResMed, Jazz Pharmaceuticals, NightBalance, and Inspire, Inc. The other authors report no conflicts of interest.
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