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Sleep and Breathing

, Volume 22, Issue 4, pp 1045–1052 | Cite as

Nocturnal blood pressure fluctuation and associated influential factors in severe obstructive sleep apnea patients with hypertension

  • Jing Xu
  • Ning Ding
  • Xilong Zhang
  • Nana Wang
  • Bing Sun
  • Rong Zhang
  • Xiaochen Xie
  • Zongren Wan
  • Yanli Gu
  • Shan Zhang
  • Yongqing Hong
  • Mao HuangEmail author
  • Zili MengEmail author
Sleep Breathing Physiology and Disorders • Original Article

Abstract

Purpose

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) can induce dramatic blood pressure (BP) fluctuations during sleep and it can be associated with hypertension. We investigated the properties and associated influential factors of BP fluctuation in severe OSAS with and without hypertension.

Methods

Two hundred one severe OSAS subjects were divided into hypertensive and normotensive groups. BP was continuously monitored via measurement of pulse transmit time (PTT). The value of apnea-related systolic BP elevation (ΔSBP) was used to reflect the amplitude of BP fluctuation, and the SBP index (the number of ΔSBP > 10 mmHg per hour of sleep time) was used to stand for the frequency of significant BP fluctuations.

Results

Compared with the normotensive group, △SBP and SBP index were higher in the hypertensive group (13.8 ± 4.4 mmHg vs 10.9 ± 3.1 mmHg; 44.8 ± 21.3 events/h vs 26.8 ± 15.8 events/h, all p < 0.001). Multiple regression analysis showed that percentage of sleep time with oxygen saturation < 90% (TST90) and SBP index correlated more with mean level of awakeness and sleep SBP than with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Analysis of all apnea events demonstrated that △SBP and the frequency of BP fluctuations were more remarkable following hypoxia than following arousal; △SBP correlated more with oxygen desaturation degree (r = 0.388, p < 0.01) and minimal SpO2 (r = 0.392, p < 0.01) than with apnea length and desaturation duration.

Conclusions

In severe OSAS, nocturnal and awake BP levels are associated more with the nocturnal hypoxic duration and BP fluctuation than with AHI. Nocturnal BP fluctuation can be induced by both hypoxia and arousal, and especially by hypoxia.

Trial registration

NCT02876471

Keywords

Obstructive sleep apnea Hypertension Blood pressure fluctuation Hypoxia Arousal 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank all patients included in this research.

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of Scientific Research and Technology Ethics Committee of Huai’an First People’s Hospital and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11325_2018_1634_MOESM1_ESM.docx (21 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 21 kb)
11325_2018_1634_MOESM2_ESM.docx (24 kb)
ESM 2 (DOCX 23 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jing Xu
    • 1
  • Ning Ding
    • 2
  • Xilong Zhang
    • 2
  • Nana Wang
    • 1
  • Bing Sun
    • 1
  • Rong Zhang
    • 1
  • Xiaochen Xie
    • 1
  • Zongren Wan
    • 1
  • Yanli Gu
    • 1
  • Shan Zhang
    • 1
  • Yongqing Hong
    • 1
  • Mao Huang
    • 2
    Email author
  • Zili Meng
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Respiratory, Huai’an First People’s HospitalNanjing Medical UniversityHuai’anPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of Respiratory and Critical Care MedicineThe First Affiliated Hospital with Nanjing Medical UniversityNanjingChina

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