Sleep and Breathing

, Volume 21, Issue 4, pp 1005–1011 | Cite as

Sleep correlates of substance use in community-dwelling Ethiopian adults

  • Md. Dilshad Manzar
  • Mohammed Salahuddin
  • Tarekegn Tesfaye Maru
  • Tegene Legese Dadi
  • Mathewos Geneto Abiche
  • Dejene Derseh Abateneh
  • Seithikurippu R. Pandi-Perumal
  • Ahmed S. BahammamEmail author
Psychiatrics • Original Article



The relationship between sleep disturbances and substance use can have harmful effects. Evidence shows widespread use of substances, including khat, in the Ethiopian population. However, to the best of our knowledge, no study has investigated the sleep correlates of substance use in community-dwelling Ethiopian adults.

Materials and methods

A cross-sectional study using simple random sampling was performed on community-dwelling adults (n = 371, age = 25.5 ± 5.7 years, body mass index = 22.0 ± 2.2 kg/m2) in Mizan-Aman, Ethiopia. Dichotomized sleep measures (sleep quality and sleep latency) assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were used in association analysis using binary logistic regression with substance use (khat, smoking, and alcohol).


Sleep latency was associated with khat chewing (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7–4.4) and tobacco smoking (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.4–3.0). Sleep quality was associated with khat chewing (AOR = 3.1, 95% CI 1.8–5.2), tobacco smoking (AOR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.2–2.5), and alcohol intake (AOR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.1–3.1).


Sleep correlates of substance use were found in community-dwelling Ethiopians. These findings may aid in the development of targeted strategies to manage substance use-related sleep disturbances.


Khat Sleep Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Substance use Alcohol Tobacco 



The work was supported by the Mizan-Tepi University faculty research fund. The funding body did not have any role in the design of the study and data collection, analysis, interpretation of data, and/or in writing the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethics approval and consent to participate

The study protocol was approved by the institutional review board at King Saud University, and informed consent was obtained from all of the participants prior to inclusion in this study.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from the participants.

Conflict of interests

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Md. Dilshad Manzar
    • 1
  • Mohammed Salahuddin
    • 2
  • Tarekegn Tesfaye Maru
    • 2
  • Tegene Legese Dadi
    • 3
  • Mathewos Geneto Abiche
    • 1
  • Dejene Derseh Abateneh
    • 1
  • Seithikurippu R. Pandi-Perumal
    • 4
  • Ahmed S. Bahammam
    • 5
    • 6
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Health SciencesMizan-Tepi University (Mizan Campus)Mizan-AmanEthiopia
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacy, College of Health SciencesMizan-Tepi University (Mizan Campus)Mizan-AmanEthiopia
  3. 3.Department of Public Health, College of Health SciencesMizan-Tepi University (Mizan Campus)Mizan-AmanEthiopia
  4. 4.Somnogen Canada IncTorontoCanada
  5. 5.The University Sleep Disorders Center, College of MedicineKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  6. 6.National Plan for Science and Technology, College of MedicineKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia

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