Sleep correlates of substance use in community-dwelling Ethiopian adults
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The relationship between sleep disturbances and substance use can have harmful effects. Evidence shows widespread use of substances, including khat, in the Ethiopian population. However, to the best of our knowledge, no study has investigated the sleep correlates of substance use in community-dwelling Ethiopian adults.
Materials and methods
A cross-sectional study using simple random sampling was performed on community-dwelling adults (n = 371, age = 25.5 ± 5.7 years, body mass index = 22.0 ± 2.2 kg/m2) in Mizan-Aman, Ethiopia. Dichotomized sleep measures (sleep quality and sleep latency) assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were used in association analysis using binary logistic regression with substance use (khat, smoking, and alcohol).
Sleep latency was associated with khat chewing (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7–4.4) and tobacco smoking (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.4–3.0). Sleep quality was associated with khat chewing (AOR = 3.1, 95% CI 1.8–5.2), tobacco smoking (AOR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.2–2.5), and alcohol intake (AOR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.1–3.1).
Sleep correlates of substance use were found in community-dwelling Ethiopians. These findings may aid in the development of targeted strategies to manage substance use-related sleep disturbances.
KeywordsKhat Sleep Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Substance use Alcohol Tobacco
The work was supported by the Mizan-Tepi University faculty research fund. The funding body did not have any role in the design of the study and data collection, analysis, interpretation of data, and/or in writing the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Ethics approval and consent to participate
The study protocol was approved by the institutional review board at King Saud University, and informed consent was obtained from all of the participants prior to inclusion in this study.
Informed consent was obtained from the participants.
Conflict of interests
All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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