Sleep and Breathing

, Volume 20, Issue 2, pp 893–900 | Cite as

The Determining Risk of Vascular Events by Apnea Monitoring (DREAM) study: design, rationale, and methods

  • Brian B. Koo
  • Christine Won
  • Bernardo J. Selim
  • Li Qin
  • Sangchoon Jeon
  • Nancy S. Redeker
  • Dawn M. Bravata
  • Kingman P. Strohl
  • John Concato
  • Andrey V. Zinchuk
  • Henry K. Yaggi
Epidemiology • Original Article



The goal of the Determining Risk of Vascular Events by Apnea Monitoring (DREAM) study is to develop a prognostic model for cardiovascular outcomes, based on physiologic variables—related to breathing, sleep architecture, and oxygenation—measured during polysomnography in US veterans.


The DREAM study is a multi-site, retrospective observational cohort study conducted at three Veterans Affairs (VA) centers (West Haven, CT; Indianapolis, IN; Cleveland, OH). Veterans undergoing polysomnography between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2004 were included based on referral for evaluation of sleep-disordered breathing, documented history and physical prior to sleep testing, and ≥2-h sleep monitoring. Demographic, anthropomorphic, medical, medication, and social history factors were recorded. Measures to determine sleep apnea, sleep architecture, and oxygenation were recorded from polysomnography. VA Patient Treatment File, VA–Medicare Data, Vista Computerized Patient Record System, and VA Vital Status File were reviewed on dates subsequent to polysomnography, ranging from 0.06 to 8.8 years (5.5 ± 1.3 years; mean ± SD).


The study population includes 1840 predominantly male, middle-aged veterans. As designed, the main primary outcome is the composite endpoint of acute coronary syndrome, stroke, transient ischemic attack, or death. Secondary outcomes include incidents of neoplasm, congestive heart failure, cardiac arrhythmia, diabetes, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Laboratory outcomes include measures of glycemic control, cholesterol, and kidney function. (Actual results are pending.)


This manuscript provides the rationale for the inclusion of veterans in a study to determine the association between physiologic sleep measures and cardiovascular outcomes and specifically the development of a corresponding outcome-based prognostic model.


Sleep apnea OSA Epidemiology Veterans Cardiovascular 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg (outside the USA) 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brian B. Koo
    • 1
    • 2
  • Christine Won
    • 3
    • 4
  • Bernardo J. Selim
    • 5
  • Li Qin
    • 6
  • Sangchoon Jeon
    • 7
  • Nancy S. Redeker
    • 7
  • Dawn M. Bravata
    • 8
    • 9
    • 10
    • 11
    • 12
  • Kingman P. Strohl
    • 13
    • 14
  • John Concato
    • 15
    • 16
  • Andrey V. Zinchuk
    • 3
    • 4
  • Henry K. Yaggi
    • 3
    • 4
    • 17
  1. 1.Department of NeurologyYale UniversityNew HavenUSA
  2. 2.Department of NeurologyConnecticut Veterans Affairs Health SystemWest HavenUSA
  3. 3.Department of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep MedicineYale UniversityNew HavenUSA
  4. 4.Department of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep MedicineConnecticut Veterans Affairs Health SystemWest HavenUSA
  5. 5.Department of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep MedicineMayo ClinicRochesterUSA
  6. 6.Department of BiostatisticsYale School of Public HealthNew HavenUSA
  7. 7.Division of Acute Care/Health SystemsYale School of NursingNew HavenUSA
  8. 8.Department of NeurologyIndiana University School of MedicineIndianapolisUSA
  9. 9.VA HSR&D Center for Health Information and Communication (CHIC)Richard L. Roudebush VA Medical CenterIndianapolisUSA
  10. 10.Department of Internal MedicineIndiana University School of MedicineIndianapolisUSA
  11. 11.Regenstrief InstituteIndianapolisUSA
  12. 12.Department of MedicineRichard L. Roudebush VA Medical CenterIndianapolisUSA
  13. 13.Department of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep MedicineCase Western Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA
  14. 14.Department of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep MedicineLouis Stokes Veterans Affairs Medical CenterClevelandUSA
  15. 15.Department of Internal MedicineYale UniversityNew HavenUSA
  16. 16.Clinical Epidemiology Research Center (CERC)Connecticut Veterans Affairs Health SystemWest HavenUSA
  17. 17.New HavenUSA

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