Vascular adhesion molecules in men with obstructive sleep apnea: associations with obesity and metabolic syndrome
Mechanisms linking obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) to vascular diseases as well as obesity and metabolic syndrome are not clear. The purpose of the study was to evaluate levels of vascular adhesion molecules (soluble vascular cell adhesion molecules-1 (sVCAM-1) and E-selectin) in men with obstructive sleep apnea and control subjects and to determine their relations with obesity and metabolic syndrome.
Men with OSA and controls matched for age were included in the study. Overnight polysomnography was performed. Body mass index (BMI) and all the components of metabolic syndrome were evaluated. Serum levels of sVCAM-1 and E-selectin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data presented as median (25th and 75th percentiles).
Levels of sVCAM-1 (698.2 (627.6–798.2) vs 565.5 (518.8–678.1) ng/ml, p = 0.003) and E-selectin (64.9 (50.1–83.1) vs 49.7 (39.8–59.5) ng/ml, p = 0.017) were higher in the OSA group compared to the controls. Half of OSA patients had metabolic syndrome. Serum levels of sVCAM-1 and E-selectin did not differ in OSA patients with and without metabolic syndrome. Concentrations of both vascular adhesion molecules correlated with oxygen desaturation index (ODI), but the relation was no more significant after adjustment for all the components of metabolic syndrome. After adjustment for BMI, sVCAM-1 levels positively correlated with oxygen desaturation index (r = 0.331, p = 0.009).
Serum levels of sVCAM-1 and E-selectin were increased in the OSA patient group compared to the controls. sVCAM-1 showed relation with ODI after adjustment for BMI suggesting that it could contribute to development of cardiovascular consequences in OSA patients.