Sleep and Breathing

, Volume 18, Issue 4, pp 829–835 | Cite as

Effects of environment light during sleep on autonomic functions of heart rate and breathing

  • Motoo Yamauchi
  • Frank J. Jacono
  • Yukio Fujita
  • Makiko Kumamoto
  • Masanori Yoshikawa
  • Cara K. Campanaro
  • Kenneth A. Loparo
  • Kingman P. Strohl
  • Hiroshi Kimura
Original Article



Poor sleep hygiene including sleeping in the daytime or with the lights on at night is discovered during the assessment of many sleep disorders including sleep apnea. The aim of this study was to investigate whether environmental light affected autonomic control of heart rate, sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), and/or breathing patterning.


Seventeen non-obese healthy volunteers without witnessed snoring and apneas were recruited. Studies were performed at home using a type 3 portable monitor combined with actigraphy for sleep-wake timing, using a randomly assigned, crossover between dark, or 1,000 lx of fluorescent lighting environment. The outcomes were low-frequency power divided by high-frequency power (LF/HF ratio) in the analysis of heart rate variability, the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), and ventilatory pattern variability before and after sleep onset between environments.


The LF/HF ratio and AHI were both significantly higher in light as compared to dark. Before sleep onset, the coefficient of variation (CV) for breath-to-breath tidal volume representing breathing irregularity tended to be higher in light than in dark environment. The CV values for tidal volume after sleep onset were significantly decreased compared with before sleep onset in both sleep environments. Mutual information of the ventilatory pattern was significantly lower before sleep onset than after sleep onset, only in the light environment.


Sleeping in the light has effects like that of a stressor as it is associated with neuroexcitation, SDB, and resting breathing irregularity in healthy volunteers. These findings may be relevant to many sleep disorders associated with poor sleep hygiene.


Obstructive sleep apnea Sleep environment Sleep hygiene Sympathetic nerve activity Resting breathing irregularity 



Apnea-hypopnea index


Body mass index


Nasal continuous positive airway pressure


Coefficient of variation





LF/HF ratio

Low-frequency power divided by high-frequency power in the analysis of heart rate variability


Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome


Respiratory inductance plethysmography


Standard deviation


Sleep-disordered breathing


Pulse oximetry


Breath-to-breath respiratory duration



This study is partly supported by a grant to the Comprehensive Research on Life-Style Related Diseases including Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes Mellitus Group from the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan. US investigators were supported in part by the NIH-NHLBI [R33HL087340-01] and Award Number I01BX000873 from the Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development Service of the VA Office of Research and Development.

Conflict of interest

None of the authors have financial conflicts of interest to declare as it relates to the contents of this manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Motoo Yamauchi
    • 1
  • Frank J. Jacono
    • 2
  • Yukio Fujita
    • 1
  • Makiko Kumamoto
    • 1
  • Masanori Yoshikawa
    • 1
  • Cara K. Campanaro
    • 2
  • Kenneth A. Loparo
    • 3
  • Kingman P. Strohl
    • 2
  • Hiroshi Kimura
    • 1
  1. 1.Second Department of Internal Medicine (Department of Respiratory Medicine)Nara Medical UniversityKashiharaJapan
  2. 2.Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep MedicineCase Western Reserve University and Louis Stokes Cleveland VA Medical CenterClevelandUSA
  3. 3.Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer ScienceCase Western Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA

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