A case–control study of craniofacial features of children with obstructed sleep apnea
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This study aims to analyze differences in the skeletal, dental, and soft tissue components of craniofacial structure predisposing to the pediatric obstructive sleep apnea, by a comparison of the cephalograms between children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and controls.
Materials and methods
The study enrolled a total of 30 children who were composed of the following two groups: 15 OSA patients and 15 controls. The two groups were strictly matched by age and sex. Lateral head radiographs were obtained and then cephalometric measurements were compared between the two. Fifty-six measurements were determined to study various skeletal, soft tissue, and airway structure.
Marked differences were demonstrated in terms of SNB, PG-NB, lower facial height, H-C3Me, and adenoid (A) and tonsil (T/P). The SNB angle (75.82 ± 4.30) in case group was smaller than in the control (78.71 ± 2.61; p = 0.035), the PG/NB value in case group (1.32 ± 0.84 mm) was higher than that in the control (0.62 ± 0.60 mm; p = 0.015). The anterior lower facial height was 65.12 ± 5.91 mm in case group (p = 0.048), while the anterior lower facial height in control was 61.51 ± 3.22 mm. The position of hyoid was lower in case group (5.30 ± 3.67 mm) compared with the control one (2.64 ± 2.58 mm; p = 0.029). Furthermore, the patients with OSA had larger As and T/Ps than the controls.
The case group differed from the control group in the length of mandible, anterior lower facial height, position of hyoid and the chin, and the size of the As and T/Ps.
KeywordsPediatric sleep apnea syndrome Craniofacial features PSG Cephalometrics
This study was supported by grants from Capital Research Fund of Science Development (2007–3009) and National Science Foundation of China (30872915).
Conflict of interest
We declare that we have no conflict of interest in the authorship or publication of this contribution and no presentation at any conference.
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