Sleep and Breathing

, Volume 16, Issue 1, pp 89–94 | Cite as

High risk for sleep apnea in the Berlin questionnaire and coronary artery disease

  • Denis Martinez
  • Roberto Pacheco da Silva
  • Cristini Klein
  • Cintia Zappe Fiori
  • Daniela Massierer
  • Cristiane Maria Cassol
  • Angelo Jose Gonçalves Bos
  • Miguel Gus



Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects up to 30% of the adult population and is a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). The diagnostic process, involving polysomnography, may be complex. Berlin questionnaire (BQ) is a validated and economical screening tool.


The aim of this study was to assess the performance of the BQ for the diagnosis of OSA in individuals with angina complaints.


Patients undergoing diagnostic cineangiography, portable type III polysomnography to determine the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), and who answered the BQ were included. We excluded patients older than 65 years that were smokers, diabetics, and morbidly obese. High risk for OSA was based on positive responses in two of three symptom criteria of the BQ. CAD was defined by the presence of >50% lesion in coronary arteries.


In 57 included cases, high risk in the BQ indicates significant odds ratio [95% confidence interval] for the presence of CAD (4.5[1.03–19.25], P = 0.045), adjusted for usual confounders: gender, age, and body mass index. The sensitivity and the specificity of BQ for CAD were 70% and 48%, respectively; the positive and negative predictive values are 56% and 64%.


In conclusion, simple questionnaire-based diagnostic tools can be included in the screening procedures of patients with angina to detect the need for further OSA evaluation. In conclusion, the BQ is an effective instrument for this purpose.


Sleep apnea syndromes Sleep monitoring Questionnaire Coronary artery disease 



The authors would like to thank Drs. Marco Vugman Wainstein and Jorge Pinto Ribeiro for their valuable contribution in providing data from the cineangiocoronariography.

Conflict of interest


Financial support

Financial support was granted by the Brazilian Government (CAPES e CNPq grants) through a research incentive fund (FIPE) of the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Denis Martinez
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
  • Roberto Pacheco da Silva
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Cristini Klein
    • 3
    • 4
  • Cintia Zappe Fiori
    • 3
    • 4
  • Daniela Massierer
    • 3
    • 4
  • Cristiane Maria Cassol
    • 3
    • 4
  • Angelo Jose Gonçalves Bos
    • 7
  • Miguel Gus
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
  1. 1.Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do SulPorto AlegreBrazil
  2. 2.Cardiology Unit, Hospital de Clínicas Porto Alegre (HCPA)Porto AlegreBrazil
  3. 3.Graduate Program in Cardiology and Cardiovascular SciencesFederal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS)Porto AlegreBrazil
  4. 4.Cardiology Unit, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto AlegreFederal University of Rio Grande do SulPorto AlegreBrazil
  5. 5.Graduate Program in Medical SciencesFederal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS)Porto AlegreBrazil
  6. 6.Hospital de Clinicas de Porto AlegreFederal University of Rio Grande do SulPorto AlegreBrazil
  7. 7.Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Institute of Geriatrics and GerontologyPorto AlegreBrazil

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