Sleep and Breathing

, Volume 14, Issue 3, pp 253–257 | Cite as

Infertility and obstructive sleep apnea: the effect of continuous positive airway pressure therapy on serum prolactin levels

  • Madalina Minciu Macrea
  • Thomas J. Martin
  • Leon Zagrean
Short Communication

Abstract

Background

Obstructive sleep apnea disease (OSA) is associated with a myriad of endocrine adverse effects. Changes in the serum prolactin (PRL) secretion in OSA are thought to be related to the hypoxic stress and subsequently to result in reversible changes with effective continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. Due to current disagreements on this topic, we investigated the effect of CPAP therapy on the serum PRL in patients with OSA, using the most accurate CPAP compliance assessment to date

Methods

Fourteen adults were recruited from those scheduled at the Salem Veterans Affairs Medical Center for a diagnostic polysomnogram (PSG). Fasting serum PRL, estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (Test), glucose, cortisol (Cor), and leptin levels were measured at 7 a.m., the morning after PSG, and again in ten of these patients, after 11–39 months of CPAP therapy. Compliance data, for both short-term (mean, 34 days) and long-term follow-up (mean, 304 days), were downloaded.

Results

Except PRL, no other hormone's serum level, including that of FSH, LH, Test, Cor, and Leptin, has changed significantly after the CPAP therapy.

Conclusions

CPAP therapy is associated with a significant decrease in serum PRL levels.

Keywords

Prolactin Obstructive sleep apnea Continuous positive airway pressure 

Notes

Conflict of interest

None to declare.

References

  1. 1.
    Luboshitzky R, Lavie L, Shen-Orr Z, Herer P (2005) Altered luteinizing hormone and testosterone secretion in middle-aged obese men with obstructive sleep apnea. Obes Res 13:780–786CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Levers-Landis C, Redline S (2007) Pediatric sleep apnea: implications of the epidemic of childhood overweight. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 175:436–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Meston N, Davies R, Mullins R, Jenkinson C, Wass J, Stradling J (2003) Endocrine effects of nasal continuous positive airway pressure in male patients with obstructive sleep apnea. J Int Med 254:447–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bratel T, Wennlund A, Carlstrom K (1999) Pituitary reactivity, androgens and catecholamines in obstructive sleep apnea. Effects of continuous positive airway pressure treatment (CPAP). Respir Med 93:1–7CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Spiegel K, Follenius M, Krieger J, Sforza E, Brandenberger G (1995) Prolactin secretion during sleep in obstructive sleep apnea patients. J Sleep Res 4:56–62CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Santamaria J, Prior C, Fleetham J (1988) Reversible reproductive dysfunction in men with obstructive sleep apnea. Clin Endocrinol 28:461–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Grunstein R, Handelsman D, Lawrence S (1989) Neuroendocrine dysfunction in sleep apnea: reversal by continuous positive airway pressure therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 68:352CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kushida CA (2007) Obstructive sleep apnea: pathophysiology, comorbidities and consequences. III. series: sleep disorders. InformaHealthcare, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Segal S, Rone M, Laufer N (1978) Prolactin in seminal plasma of infertile men. Syst Biol Reprod Med 1:49–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pierrepoint C, John B, Groom G, Wilson D, Gow J (1978) Prolactin and testosterone levels in the plasma of fertile and infertile men. J Endocrinol 76:171–172CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Micic S, Dotlic R, Ilic V, Genbacev V (1985) Hormone profile in hyperprolactinemic infertile men. Arch Andron 15:123–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rechtschaffen A, Kales A (1968) A manual of standardized terminology, techniques, and scoring system for sleep stages of human subjects. Government Printing Office; NIH publication 204, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    ASDA Report (1992) EEG arousals: scoring rules and examples. Sleep 15:173–184Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Altman DG (1991) Practical statistics for medical research. UK, LondonGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    De Rosa M, Zarrilli S, Di Sarno A, Milano N, Gaccione M, Boggia B, Lombardi G, Colao A (2003) Hyperprolactinemia in men: clinical and biochemical features and response to treatment. Endocr 20:75–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mendoza A, Panigua S, Carlos K (2001) Sympathetic activity in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome associated to systemic arterial hypertension and treatment with oxygen. Rev Mex Cardiol 12:147–158Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Murdoch F, Byrne L, Ariazi E, Meier D, Gorski J (1995) Estrogen receptor binding to DNA: affinity for nonpalindromic elements from the rat prolactin gene. Biochemistry 34:9144–9150CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Malayer J, Gorski J (1995) The role of estrogen receptor in modulation of chromatin conformation in the 5′ flanking region of the rat prolactin gene. Mol Cell Endocrinol 113:145–154CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Snyder P, Jacobs L, Utiger R (1973) Thyroid hormone inhibition of the prolactin response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone. J Clin Invest 52:2324CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cohen P (2008) Obesity in men: the hypogonadal-estrogen receptor relationship and its effect on glucose homeostasis. Med Hypotheses 70:358–360CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© © US Government 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Madalina Minciu Macrea
    • 1
    • 2
  • Thomas J. Martin
    • 1
    • 2
  • Leon Zagrean
    • 3
  1. 1.Salem Veterans Affairs Medical CenterSalemUSA
  2. 2.University of Virginia Medical SchoolCharlottesvilleUSA
  3. 3.Department of Physiology“Carol Davila” University of MedicineBucharestRomania

Personalised recommendations