Advertisement

Sleep and Breathing

, Volume 9, Issue 4, pp 146–158 | Cite as

Orthodontic treatment in children to prevent sleep-disordered breathing in adulthood

  • Makoto Kikuchi
Review

Abstract

The purpose of this article is to review human craniofacial growth and development, especially the growth of the mandible, to clarify the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome and craniofacial abnormality, and finally, to propose the hypothesis that negative pressure produced in the chest of the OSA child inhibits the growth of the mandible. Recently, the development of diagnosis and treatment of OSA syndrome has progressed rapidly; however, the prevention of OSA syndrome was merely seen. Craniofacial abnormality is reported as one of the causes of OSA syndrome. If craniofacial abnormality is determined only by genetics, it is difficult to manage the craniofacial skeleton to prevent OSA syndrome. The role of epigenetic factors on craniofacial growth and development is still controversial. However, if we stand on the functional matrix hypothesis, we can manage not only growth of the mandible but also the craniofacial skeleton as a whole. The author proposes the hypothesis that the negative pressure produced in the chest prohibits the growth of the mandible even if the patients have a capacity for growth and development; therefore, if this negative pressure disappears because of the removal of the tonsil and/or adenoids or by an orthodontic treatment to make a patency of the airway, the mandible may grow normally, and we can prevent or reduce a number of OSA syndromes in the future.

Keywords

Obstructive sleep apnea Craniofacial growth and development Functional matrix hypothesis Negative pressure in the chest Growth of the mandible Orthodontic treatment Airway patency Prevention 

References

  1. 1.
    Enlow DH (1975) Handbook of facial growth. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Moss ML (1997a) The functional matrix hypothesis revisited. 1. The role of mechanotransduction. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop 112(1):8–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Moss ML (1997b) The functional matrix hypothesis revisited. 2. The role of an osseous connected cellular network. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop 112(2):221–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Moss ML (1997c) The functional matrix hypothesis revisited. 3. The genomic thesis. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop 112(3):338–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Moss ML (1997d) The functional matrix hypothesis revisited. 4. The epigenetic antithesis and the resolving synthesis. Am J Orthod Dentofacial thesis. Orthop 112(4):410–417Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Guilleminault C, Pelayo R (1998) Sleep-disordered breathing in children. Ann Med 30(4):350–356PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Watson EH, Lowrey GH (1954) Growth and development of children, 2nd edn. Year Book, Chicago, pp 5, 126, 253Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Todd TW (1931) Differential skeletal maturation in relation to sex, race, variability, and disease. Child Dev 2:49–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Slavkin H (1999) Possibilities of growth modification: nature vs. nurture. In: McNamara JA Jr (ed) Growth modification: what works, what doesn’t and why. Craniofacial growth series, vol 35. Center for Human Growth and Development, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, pp 1-15Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hunter J (1771) Natural history of the human teeth. LondonGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Weinmann JP, Sicher H (1947) Bone and bones. Fundamentals of bone biology. Mosby, St. LouisGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Brodie AG (1946) Facial patterns: a theme on variation. Angle Orthod 16:75–88Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Scott JH (1956) Growth of facial sutures. Am J Orthod 42:381–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pritchard JJ, Scott JH, Girgis FG (1956) The structure and development of cranial and facial sutures. J Anat 90:73–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Baer MJ (1954) Patterns of growth of’ the skull is revealed by vital staining. Hum Biol 26:80–126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Moss ML (1954) Growth of the calvaria in the rat. The determination of osseous morphology. Am J Anat 94:333–362CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Moss ML (1957) Experimental alteration of sutural area morphology. Anat Rec 127:569–589CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Scott JH (1953) The cartilage of the nasal septum: a contribution to the study of facial growth. Br Dent J 95:37–43Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Scott JH (1954) The growth of the human face. Proc R Soc Med 47:91–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Scott JH (1956) Growth of facial sutures. Am J Orthod 42:381–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Koski K (1971) Some characteristics of cranio-facial growth cartilages. In: Moyers RE, Krogman WM (eds) Cranio-facial growth in man. Pergamon, Oxford, pp 125–138Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Moss ML, Salentijn L (1969) The primary role of functional matrices in facial growth. Am J Orthod 55:566–577CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Enlow DH (1977) Growth of the craniofacial skeleton. In: Moyers RE (ed) Handbook of orthodontics. Year Book, Chicago, pp 51–117Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Van der Klaauw CJ (1948–1952) Size and position of functional components of the skull. Arch Neerl Zool 9:1–559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Enlow DH (1975) Handbook of facial growth. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 290–321Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Marcus CL, Keens TG, Bautista DB, von Pechmann WS, Ward SL (1991) Obstructive sleep apnea in children with Down syndrome. Pediatrics 88(1):132–139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ferraro NF (2000) Craniofacial development and the airway during sleep. In: Loughlin GM, Caroll JL, Marcus CL (eds) Sleep and breathing in children. Dekker, New York, pp 293–309Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Nezu H, Nagata K (1988) Orthodontic diagnosis and treatment in bioprogressive therapy (Japanese). Rocky Mountain Morita, Tokyo, pp 48–55Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Enlow DH (1963) Principles of bone remodeling. Thomas, SpringfieldGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Enlow DH, Harris DB (1964) A study of the postnatal growth of the human mandible. Am J Orthod 50:25–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bjork A (1968) The use of metallic implants in the study of facial growth in children: method and application. Am J Phys Anthrop 29:243–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bjork A, Skieller V (1983) Normal and abnormal growth of the mandible. A synthesis of longitudinal cephalometric implant studies over a period of 25 years. Eur J Orthod 5(1):1–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bacon WH, Turlot JC, Krieger J, Stierle JL (1990) Cephalometric evaluation of pharyngeal obstructive factors in patients with sleep apneas syndrome. Angle Orthod 60(2):115–122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Andersson L, Brattstrom V (1991) Cephalometric analysis of permanently snoring patients with and without obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 20(3):159–162CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Zucconi M, Ferini-Strambi L, Palazzi S, Curci C, Cucchi E, Smirne SS (1993) Craniofacial cephalometric evaluation in habitual snorers with and without obstructive sleep apnea. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 109(6):1007–1013PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Jamieson A, Guilleminault C, Partinen M, Quera-Salva MA (1986) Obstructive sleep apneic patients have craniomandibular abnormalities. Sleep 9(4):469–477PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Steinberg B, Fraser B (1995) The cranial base in obstructive sleep apnea. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 53(10):1150–1154CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lowe AA, Santamaria JD, Fleetham JA, Price C (1986) Facial morphology and obstructive sleep apnea. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop 90(6):484–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lowe AA, Ono T, Ferguson KA, Pae EK, Ryan CF, Fleetham JA (1995) Cephalometric comparisons of craniofacial and upper airway structure by skeletal subtype and gender in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop 110(6):653–664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kikuchi M, Higurashi N, Miyazaki S, Itasaka Y (2000) Facial patterns of obstructive sleep apnea patients using Ricketts’ method. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 54(3):336–337CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Paoli JR, Lauwers F, Lacassagne L, Tiberge M, Dodart L, Boutault F (2001) Craniofacial differences according to the body mass index of patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome: cephalometric study in 85 patients. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 39(1):40–45CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Finkelstein Y, Wexler D, Berger G, Nachmany A, Shapiro-Feinberg M, Ophir D (2000) Anatomical basis of sleep sleep-related breathing abnormalities in children with nasal obstruction. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 126(5):593–600PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Tangugsorn V, Skatvedt O, Krogstad O, Lyberg T (1995) Obstructive sleep apnoea: a cephalometric study. Part I. Cervico-craniofacial skeletal morphology. Eur J Orthod 17(1):45–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Lyberg T, Krogstad O, Djupesland G (1989) Cephalometric analysis in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. I. Skeletal morphology. J Laryngol Otol 103(3):287–292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Guilleminault C, Quera-Salva MA, Partinen M, Jamieson A (1988) Women and the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Chest 93:104–109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Guilleminault C, Riley R, Powell N (1984) Obstructive sleep apnea and cephalometric roentgenograms. Am Rev Respir Dis 130(1):145–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Higurashi N, Kikuchi M, Miyazaki S, Itasaka Y (2001) Comparison of Ricketts analysis and Downs–Northwestern analysis for the evaluation of obstructive sleep apnea cephalograms. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 55(3):259–260CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ricketts RM (1989) Provocations and perceptions in craniofacial orthopedics. Sect. 3 anatomical science, chap. 14 the architecture of the lower jaw complex. RMO, Denver, p 571Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kikuchi M, Higurashi N, Miyazaki S, Itasaka Y, Chiba S, Nezu H (2002) Facial pattern categories of sleep breathing disordered children using Ricketts analysis. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 56(3):329–330CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Moss ML (1962) The functional matrix. In: Kraus B, Reidcl R (eds) Vistas in orthodontics. Lea & Febiger, Phiadelphia, pp 85–98Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Moss ML (1954) Growth of the calvaria in the rat: the determination of osseous morphology. Am J Anat 94:333–362CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Moss ML (1960) A functional analysis of human mandibular growth. J Prosthet Dent 10:1149–1160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Moss ML (1968) The primacy of functional matrices in orofacial growth. Dent Pract Dent Rec 19:65–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Moss ML (1969) Differential roles of the periosteal and capsular matrices in orofacial growth. Trans Eur Orthod Soc 45:193–206Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Moss ML, Rankow R (1968) The role of the functional matrix mandihular growth. Angle Orthod 38:95–103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Moss ML, Salentijn L (1969) The capsular matrix. Am J Orthod 55:566–577CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Moss L, Young R (1960) A functional approach to craniology. Am J Phys Anthropol 18:281–292CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Hanada K, Ohyama K (1973) Experimental growthology. In: Miura F (ed) Recent advances in orthodontics. Orthodontics (Japanese). Ishiyaku, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kikuchi M, Lu Chun-Hsiung, Sebata M, Yamamoto Y (1978) The mandibular development of the rat after the denervation of the masseteric nerve. Bull Tokyo Dent Coll 19(2):75–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Moyers RE (1977) Handbook of orthodontics. Year Book, Chicago, pp 1–7Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Miyao E, Nakayama M, Noda A, Miyao M, Yasuma F, Hashioka T, Esaki K (2004) Orthodontic treatment for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Sleep Biol Rhythms 2:229–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Frankel R, Frankel C (1989) Orofacial orthopedics with the function regulator. Karger, Basel, pp 19–21Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Bosma JF (1975) Form and function in the mouth and pharynx of the human infant. In: McNamara JA Jr (ed) Control mechanism in craniofacial growth. Monograph 3, craniofacial growth series. Center for Human Growth and Development, The University of Michigan, Ann ArborGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Castiglione N, Eterno C, Sciuto C, Bottaro G, La Rosa M, Patane R (1992) The diagnostic approach to and clinical study of 23 children with an obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Pediatr Med Chir 14(5):501–506PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cosmos Center for Sleep Breathing DisordersNaritaJapan

Personalised recommendations