Near-Infrared Spatially Resolved Spectroscopy as an Indirect Technique to Assess Brown Adipose Tissue in Young Women
- 144 Downloads
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has recently been proposed as an indirect technique to assess brown adipose tissue (BAT) in young men. NIRS arises as a novel technique to avoid the limitations of the “gold-standard” 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose ([18F]DG) positron emission tomography combined with X-ray computed tomography (PET/CT). The aim of this study was to examine the association between near-infrared spatially resolved spectroscopy (NIRSRS) parameters and BAT volume and activity estimated by [18F]DG-PET/CT in 18 young healthy women.
NIRSRS parameters [tissue saturation index and concentrations of total haemoglobin, oxy-haemoglobin, and deoxy-haemoglobin] were continuously measured in the supraclavicular and forearm regions, in both warm and cold (2 h of personalised cold exposure) conditions. Then, the NIRSRS data were analysed as an average of 5 min in 4 different periods: (i) warm period as the baseline record, (ii) cold period I, (iii) cold period II, and (iv) cold period III. The data were then correlated with BAT volume and activity (SUVmean and SUVpeak) estimated by [18F]DG-PET/CT.
There was no association between the NIRSRS parameters in the supraclavicular region in warm conditions (no previous cold exposure) and BAT volume and activity (P > 0.05). Similarly, the cold-induced changes of the NIRSRS parameters in the supraclavicular region were not associated with BAT volume and activity (P > 0.05).
NIRSRS does not seem to be a valid technique to indirectly assess BAT in young healthy women. Further research is needed to validate this technique against other methods such as PET/CT using different radiotracers or magnetic resonance imaging.
Key wordsAcute cold exposure BAT perfusion Cold-induced thermogenesis Energy balance Molecular imaging Oxygen consumption Oxygen delivery
We are grateful to Ms. Carmen Sainz-Quinn for the assistance with the English language and to Marco Dat (Artinis Medical Systems) for his excellent technical assistance.
The study was supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (PTA 12264-I), Fondo de Investigación Sanitaria del Instituto de Salud Carlos III (PI13/01393), and Retos de la Sociedad (DEP2016-79512-R), Fondos Estructurales de la Unión Europea (FEDER), by the Spanish Ministry of Education (FPU 13/04365 and 15/04059), by the Fundación Iberoamericana de Nutrición (FINUT), by the Redes temáticas de investigación cooperativa RETIC (Red SAMID RD16/0022), by AstraZeneca HealthCare Foundation, and by the University of Granada, Plan Propio de Investigación 2016, Excellence actions: Units of Excellence; Unit of Excellence on Exercise and Health (UCEES). This study is part of a PhD thesis conducted in the Biomedicine Doctoral Studies, University of Granada, Spain.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- 7.Leitner BP, Huang S, Brychta RJ, Duckworth CJ, Baskin AS, McGehee S, Tal I, Dieckmann W, Gupta G, Kolodny GM, Pacak K, Herscovitch P, Cypess AM, Chen KY (2017) Mapping of human brown adipose tissue in lean and obese young men. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 114:8649–8654CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 20.u Din M, Raiko J, Saari T, Kudomi N, Tolvanen T, Oikonen V, Teuho J, Sipilä HT, Savisto N, Parkkola R, Nuutila P, Virtanen KA (2016) Human brown adipose tissue [15O]O2 PET imaging in the presence and absence of cold stimulus. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 43:1878–1886CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 26.Chen KY, Cypess AM, Laughlin MR, Haft CR, Hu HH, Bredella MA, Enerbäck S, Kinahan PE, Lichtenbelt WM, Lin FI, Sunderland JJ, Virtanen KA, Wahl RL (2016) Brown adipose reporting criteria in imaging STUDIES (BARCIST 1.0): recommendations for standardized FDG-PET/CT experiments in humans. Cell Metab 24:210–222CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 28.Martinez-Tellez B, Sanchez-Delgado G, Garcia-Rivero Y et al (2017) A new personalized cooling protocol to activate brown adipose tissue in young adults. Front Physiol. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2017.00863
- 30.Suzuki S, Takasaki S, Ozaki T, Kobayashi Y (1999) Tissue oxygenation monitor using NIR spatially resolved spectroscopy. Proc SPIE. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.356862
- 31.Schindelin J, Arganda-Carreras I, Frise E, Kaynig V, Longair M, Pietzsch T, Preibisch S, Rueden C, Saalfeld S, Schmid B, Tinevez JY, White DJ, Hartenstein V, Eliceiri K, Tomancak P, Cardona A (2012) Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis. Nat Methods 9:676–682CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 32.Hasenclever D, Kurch L, Mauz-Körholz C, Elsner A, Georgi T, Wallace H, Landman-Parker J, Moryl-Bujakowska A, Cepelová M, Karlén J, Álvarez Fernández-Teijeiro A, Attarbaschi A, Fosså A, Pears J, Hraskova A, Bergsträsser E, Beishuizen A, Uyttebroeck A, Schomerus E, Sabri O, Körholz D, Kluge R (2014) qPET—a quantitative extension of the Deauville scale to assess response in interim FDG-PET scans in lymphoma. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 41:1301–1308CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar