Optical Imaging of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells in Xenograft Athymic Mice Using an ICAM-1-Targeting Small-Molecule Probe
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The development of early, accurate diagnostic strategies for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains a significant challenge. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) overexpressed in human TNBC cells is a potential molecular target and biomarker for diagnosis. In this study, small-molecule probe (denoted as γ3-Cy5.5) constructed with a short 17-mer linear peptide (γ3) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) dye cyanine 5.5 (Cy5.5) was used to detect the expression of ICAM-1 in vitro and in vivo, and to diagnose TNBC via NIRF imaging.
Western blotting and flow cytometric analysis were used for the detection of ICAM-1 expression in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. The cytotoxicity of the small-molecule probe γ3-Cy5.5 was detected using the CCK8 assay. The in vitro targeting of the small-molecule probe γ3-Cy5.5 was verified via flow cytometry and a laser scanning confocal microscope. Finally, the targeting of small-molecule probe in vivo and ex vivo was observed by NIRF imaging.
Western blotting and flow cytometry demonstrate that ICAM-1 was highly expressed in the MDA-MB-231 TNBC cell line. Laser confocal microscopy and flow cytometry results show that TNBC cells have an increased cellular uptake of γ3-Cy5.5 compared to the control probe γ3S-Cy5.5. With in vivo NIRF, a significantly higher Cy5.5 signal appeared in the tumors of mice administered γ3-Cy5.5 than those treated with γ3S-Cy5.5. The target-to-background ratio observed on the NIRF images was significantly higher in the γ3-Cy5.5 group (10.2, 13.6) compared with the γ3S-Cy5.5 group (4.4, 4.0) at 1 and 2 h, respectively.
This is the first report of the use of ICAM-1-specific small-molecule probe for in vivo NIRF optical imaging of TNBC. This method provides a noninvasive and specific strategy for the early diagnosis of TNBC.
Key wordsTriple-negative breast cancer ICAM-1 Near-infrared fluorescence imaging Small-molecule probe
This study received financial support from the National Key Basic Research Program of China (973 Program), China (2014CB744504).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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