Molecular Imaging and Biology

, Volume 19, Issue 3, pp 398–407 | Cite as

Characterization of “γ-Eye”: a Low-Cost Benchtop Mouse-Sized Gamma Camera for Dynamic and Static Imaging Studies

  • Maria Georgiou
  • Eleftherios Fysikopoulos
  • Konstantinos Mikropoulos
  • Eirini Fragogeorgi
  • George Loudos
Research Article



Several preclinical imaging systems are commercially available, but their purchase and maintenance costs make them unaffordable for the majority of small- and medium-sized groups. Taking into account the needs of average users, we developed “γ-eye”, a mouse-sized, benchtop γ-camera suitable for in vivo scintigraphic imaging.


The γ-eye is based on two position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes, coupled to a CsI(Na) pixelated scintillator and a low-energy lead collimator with parallel hexagonal holes.


The spatial resolution of the system is 2 mm at 0 mm. The energy resolution is 26 % at 140 keV and the maximum recorded sensitivity 210 cps/MBq. The system was evaluated in a proof-of-concept animal study, using three different clinical Tc-99m-labeled radiopharmaceuticals. Phantom and animal studies demonstrate its ability to provide semiquantitative results even for short scans.


Systems’ performance, dimensions, and cost make γ-eye a unique solution for efficient whole-body mouse nuclear imaging.

Key words

Single photon emission Scintigraphic small animal imaging Position sensitive photomultiplier tube Performance evaluation 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Human and Animal Rights

All applicable institutional and/or national guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.

Conflict of Interest

The technology similar to the “γ-eye” presented in this manuscript will be commercialized in the near future by BET Solutions, Athens, Greece. At this point, γ-eye system is in prototype version. Eleftherios Fysikopoulos and Konstantinos Mikropoulos are currently coworkers of BET Solutions, George Loudos is consultant for BET Solutions, and Maria Georgiou is a general partner of BET Solutions.


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Copyright information

© World Molecular Imaging Society 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria Georgiou
    • 1
  • Eleftherios Fysikopoulos
    • 1
  • Konstantinos Mikropoulos
    • 2
  • Eirini Fragogeorgi
    • 3
  • George Loudos
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.BET SolutionsR & DAthensGreece
  2. 2.Department of Biomedical EngineeringTechnological Educational Institute of AthensAthensGreece
  3. 3.National Centre for Scientific Research NCSR “Demokritos”Institute of Nuclear and Radiological Sciences and Technology, Energy and SafetyAthensGreece

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