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Accumulation of Trans-1-Amino-3-[18F]Fluorocyclobutanecarboxylic Acid in Prostate Cancer due to Androgen-Induced Expression of Amino Acid Transporters

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Androgens play a crucial role in prostate cancer progression, and trans-1-amino-3-[18F]fluorocyclobutanecarboxylic acid (anti-[18 F]FACBC) are used for visualization of prostate cancer. We examined the effect of androgen on the expression of amino acid transporters related to anti-[18F]FACBC transport and uptake of trans-1-amino-3-fluoro-[1-14C]cyclobutanecarboxylic acid (anti-[14C]FACBC).


Expression of amino acid transporters and uptake of anti-[14C]FACBC in androgen receptor (AR)-positive LNCaP and AR-negative DU145 human prostate cancer cells cultured with/without 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and the effect of bicalutamide, an AR antagonist, on DHT-associated changes were investigated.


DHT stimulated the expression of amino acid transporters ASCT2, SNAT5, 4F2 heavy chain, and LAT3 in LNCaP but not in DU145 cells. Anti-[14C]FACBC uptake was enhanced, in a DHT-dependent manner, in LNCaP cells only.


DHT enhanced the expression of ASCT2, the transporter responsible for anti-[18F]FACBC uptake, thereby increasing anti-[14C]FACBC uptake in AR-positive LNCaP cells. Androgen-mediated induction may contribute to the distinct anti-[18F]FACBC accumulation pattern in prostate cancer.

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We thank Ms. Sachiko Naito for her excellent technical assistance. We also thank Dr. Atsushi Mizokami for his helpful suggestions and comments regarding these experiments.

Conflict of Interest

Hiroyuki Okudaira, Shuntaro Oka, Masahiro Ono, and Yoshifumi Shirakami are employees of Nihon Medi-Physics Co., Ltd. Mark M. Goodman and Emory University have patent rights for anti-[18F]FACBC and are eligible to receive royalties on anti-[18F]FACBC from Nihon Medi-Physics Co., Ltd. Mark M. Goodman, David M. Schuster, and Keiichi Kawai have ongoing research collaborations with Nihon Medi-Physics Co., Ltd.

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Correspondence to Hiroyuki Okudaira.

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Okudaira, H., Oka, S., Ono, M. et al. Accumulation of Trans-1-Amino-3-[18F]Fluorocyclobutanecarboxylic Acid in Prostate Cancer due to Androgen-Induced Expression of Amino Acid Transporters. Mol Imaging Biol 16, 756–764 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11307-014-0756-x

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Key words

  • anti-FACBC
  • Prostate cancer
  • Androgen
  • Amino acid transporter
  • ASCT2