Noninvasive Reporter Gene Imaging of Human Oct4 (Pluripotency) Dynamics During the Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells in Living Subjects
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Human pluripotency gene networks (PGNs), controlled in part by Oct4, are central to understanding pluripotent stem cells, but current fluorescent reporter genes (RGs) preclude noninvasive assessment of Oct4 dynamics in living subjects.
To assess Oc4 activity noninvasively, we engineered a mouse embryonic stem cell line which encoded both a pOct4-hrluc (humanized renilla luciferase) reporter and a pUbi-hfluc2-gfp (humanized firefly luciferase 2 fused to green fluorescent protein) reporter.
In cell culture, pOct4-hRLUC activity demonstrated a peak at 48 h (day 2) and significant downregulation by 72 h (day 3) (p=0.0001). Studies in living subjects demonstrated significant downregulation in pOct4-hRLUC activity between 12 and 144 h (p = 0.001) and between 12 and 168 h (p = 0.0003). pOct4-hRLUC signal dynamics after implantation was complex, characterized by transient upregulation after initial downregulation in all experiments (n = 10, p = 0.01). As expected, cell culture differentiation of the engineered mouse embryonic stem cell line demonstrated activation of mesendodermal, mesodermal, endodermal, and ectodermal master regulators of differentiation, indicating potency to form all three germ layers.
We conclude that the Oct4-hrluc RG system enables noninvasive Oct4 imaging in cell culture and in living subjects.
Key wordsEmbryonic stem cells Pluripotent stem cells Differentiation Human Oct4 Reporter gene imaging Gene networks Molecular imaging Oct4 Pluripotency In vivo imaging In vivo differentiation
- ES cells
Embryonic stem cells
Humanized firefly luciferase gene
Humanized Renilla luciferase gene
This work is supported by National Cancer Institute In living subjects Cellular and Molecular Imaging Center grant P50 CA 114747 (S.S.G), GE global research program (S.S.G). (B.A), was supported by the Nuclear Infra Construction of Nuclear R & D program, Korean ministry of Science and Technology. (N.P.) was supported by the Doris Duke Foundation, Stanford Dean’s Fellowship, and Stanford NIBIB T32 Training grant EB009035.
Author Disclosure Statement
All authors declare that they have no potential conflict of interest in connection with the submitted article.
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