Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

[68Ga]-Albumin-PET in the Monitoring of Left Ventricular Function in Murine Models of Ischemic and Dilated Cardiomyopathy: Comparison with Cardiac MRI



The purpose of this study is to evaluate left ventricular functional parameters in healthy mice and in different murine models of cardiomyopathy with the novel blood pool (BP) positron emission tomography (PET) tracer [68Ga]-albumin.


ECG-gated microPET examinations were obtained in healthy mice, and mice with dilative (DCM) and ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) using the novel BP tracer [68Ga]-albumin (AlbBP), as well as [18F]-FDG microPET. Cine-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination performed on a clinical 1.5-T MRI provided the reference standard measurements.


When considering the combined group of healthy controls, DCM and ICM AlbBP-PET significantly overestimated the magnitudes of EDV (AlbBP, 181 ± 86 μl; cine-MRI, 125 ± 80 μl; P < 0.001) and ESV (AlbBP, 136 ± 92 μl; cine-MRI, 96 ± 77 μl; P < 0.001), whereas the EF (AlbBP, 31 ± 16 %; cine-MRI, 33 ± 21 %; P = 0.910) matched closely to cine-MRI results, as did findings with [18F]-FDG. High correlations were found between the measured cardiac parameters (EDV: R = 0.978, ESV: R = 0.989, and LVEF: R = 0.992).


Measuring left ventricular function in mice with [68Ga]-albumin BP PET is feasible and showed a high correlation compared to cine-MRI, which was used as a reference standard.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6


  1. 1.

    Brunner S, Todica A, Boning G et al (2012) Left ventricular functional assessment in murine models of ischemic and dilated cardiomyopathy using [18F]FDG-PET: comparison with cardiac MRI and monitoring erythropoietin therapy. EJNMMI Res 2:43

  2. 2.

    Brunner S, Weinberger T, Huber BC et al (2012) The cardioprotective effects of parathyroid hormone are independent of endogenous granulocyte-colony stimulating factor release. Cardiovasc Res 93:330–339

  3. 3.

    Brunner S, Zaruba MM, Huber B et al (2008) Parathyroid hormone effectively induces mobilization of progenitor cells without depletion of bone marrow. Exp Hematol 36:1157–1166

  4. 4.

    Huber BC, Brunner S, Segeth A et al (2011) Parathyroid hormone is a DPP-IV inhibitor and increases SDF-1-driven homing of CXCR4(+) stem cells into the ischaemic heart. Cardiovasc Res 90:529–537

  5. 5.

    Huber BC, Fischer R, Brunner S et al (2010) Comparison of parathyroid hormone and G-CSF treatment after myocardial infarction on perfusion and stem cell homing. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 298:H1466–1471

  6. 6.

    Zaruba MM, Huber BC, Brunner S et al (2008) Parathyroid hormone treatment after myocardial infarction promotes cardiac repair by enhanced neovascularization and cell survival. Cardiovasc Res 77:722–731

  7. 7.

    Lorenz JN, Robbins J (1997) Measurement of intraventricular pressure and cardiac performance in the intact closed-chest anesthetized mouse. Am J Physiol 272:H1137–1146

  8. 8.

    Tanaka N, Dalton N, Mao L et al (1996) Transthoracic echocardiography in models of cardiac disease in the mouse. Circulation 94:1109–1117

  9. 9.

    Hacker M, Hoyer X, Kupzyk S et al (2006) Clinical validation of the gated blood pool SPECT QBS processing software in congestive heart failure patients: correlation with MUGA, first-pass RNV and 2D-echocardiography. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 22:407–416

  10. 10.

    Hacker M, Stork S, Stratakis D et al (2003) Relationship between right ventricular ejection fraction and maximum exercise oxygen consumption: a methodological study in chronic heart failure patients. J Nucl Cardiol 10:644–649

  11. 11.

    Sibille L, Bouallegue FB, Bourdon A et al (2011) Comparative values of gated blood-pool SPECT and CMR for ejection fraction and volume estimation. Nucl Med Commun 32:121–128

  12. 12.

    Nichols KJ, Van Tosh A, Wang Y, Palestro CJ, Reichek N (2009) Validation of gated blood-pool SPECT regional left ventricular function measurements. J Nucl Med 50:53–60

  13. 13.

    Nichols K, Saouaf R, Ababneh AA et al (2002) Validation of SPECT equilibrium radionuclide angiographic right ventricular parameters by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. J Nucl Cardiol 9:153–160

  14. 14.

    Kreissl MC, Wu HM, Stout DB et al (2006) Noninvasive measurement of cardiovascular function in mice with high-temporal-resolution small-animal PET. J Nucl Med 47:974–980

  15. 15.

    Yang Y, Rendig S, Siegel S, Newport DF, Cherry SR (2005) Cardiac PET imaging in mice with simultaneous cardiac and respiratory gating. Phys Med Biol 50:2979–2989

  16. 16.

    Stegger L, Heijman E, Schafers KP et al (2009) Quantification of left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction in mice using PET, compared with MRI. J Nucl Med 50:132–138

  17. 17.

    Gropler RJ, Beanlands RS, Dilsizian V et al (2010) Imaging myocardial metabolic remodeling. J Nucl Med 51(1):88S–101S

  18. 18.

    Higuchi T, Nekolla SG, Jankaukas A et al (2007) Characterization of normal and infarcted rat myocardium using a combination of small-animal PET and clinical MRI. J Nucl Med 48:288–294

  19. 19.

    Wangler C, Wangler B, Lehner S et al (2011) A universally applicable 68Ga-labeling technique for proteins. J Nucl Med 52:586–591

  20. 20.

    Deindl E, Zaruba MM, Brunner S et al (2006) G-CSF administration after myocardial infarction in mice attenuates late ischemic cardiomyopathy by enhanced arteriogenesis. FASEB J 20:956–958

  21. 21.

    Kandolf R, Hofschneider PH (1985) Molecular cloning of the genome of a cardiotropic Coxsackie B3 virus: full-length reverse-transcribed recombinant cDNA generates infectious virus in mammalian cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 82:4818–4822

  22. 22.

    Rutschow S, Leschka S, Westermann D et al (2010) Left ventricular enlargement in coxsackievirus-B3 induced chronic myocarditis—ongoing inflammation and an imbalance of the matrix degrading system. Eur J Pharmacol 630:145–151

  23. 23.

    Germano G, Kiat H, Kavanagh PB et al (1995) Automatic quantification of ejection fraction from gated myocardial perfusion SPECT. J Nucl Med 36:2138–2147

  24. 24.

    Germano G, Kavanagh PB, Slomka PJ et al (2007) Quantitation in gated perfusion SPECT imaging: the Cedars-Sinai approach. J Nucl Cardiol 14:433–454

  25. 25.

    Van Kriekinge SD, Berman DS, Germano G (1999) Automatic quantification of left ventricular ejection fraction from gated blood pool SPECT. J Nucl Cardiol 6:498–506

  26. 26.

    Croteau E, Benard F, Cadorette J et al (2003) Quantitative gated PET for the assessment of left ventricular function in small animals. J Nucl Med 44:1655–1661

  27. 27.

    Nekolla SG, Miethaner C, Nguyen N, Ziegler SI, Schwaiger M (1998) Reproducibility of polar map generation and assessment of defect severity and extent assessment in myocardial perfusion imaging using positron emission tomography. Eur J Nucl Med 25:1313–1321

  28. 28.

    Wollenweber T, Zach C, Rischpler C et al (2010) Myocardial perfusion imaging is feasible for infarct size quantification in mice using a clinical single-photon emission computed tomography system equipped with pinhole collimators. Mol Imaging Biol 12:427–434

  29. 29.

    Bland JM, Altman DG (1999) Measuring agreement in method comparison studies. Stat Methods Med Res 8:135–160

  30. 30.

    Hoffend J, Mier W, Schuhmacher J et al (2005) Gallium-68-DOTA-albumin as a PET blood-pool marker: experimental evaluation in vivo. Nucl Med Biol 32:287–292

  31. 31.

    Chin BB, Metzler SD, Lemaire A et al (2007) Left ventricular functional assessment in mice: feasibility of high spatial and temporal resolution ECG-gated blood pool SPECT. Radiology 245:440–448

  32. 32.

    Schinkel AF, Poldermans D, Elhendy A, Bax JJ (2007) Assessment of myocardial viability in patients with heart failure. J Nucl Med 48:1135–1146

  33. 33.

    Wangler C, Wangler B, Lehner S et al (2011) A universally applicable 68Ga-labeling technique for proteins. J Nucl Med 52:586–591

  34. 34.

    Jodal L, Le Loirec C, Champion C (2012) Positron range in PET imaging: an alternative approach for assessing and correcting the blurring. Phys Med Biol 57:3931–3943

  35. 35.

    Disselhorst JA, Brom M, Laverman P et al (2010) Image-quality assessment for several positron emitters using the NEMA NU 4–2008 standards in the Siemens Inveon small-animal PET scanner. J Nucl Med 51:610–617

  36. 36.

    Cheng JC, Shoghi K, Laforest R (2012) Quantitative accuracy of MAP reconstruction for dynamic PET imaging in small animals. Med Phys 39:1029–1041

  37. 37.

    Hesse B, Lindhardt TB, Acampa W et al (2008) EANM/ESC guidelines for radionuclide imaging of cardiac function. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 35:851–885

Download references


Financial support was provided by the Fritz-Bender-Stiftung and the Else Kröner-Fresenius-Stiftung.



Author information

Correspondence to Marcus Hacker.

Additional information

Andrei Todica and Stefan Brunner contributed equally to this work.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Todica, A., Brunner, S., Böning, G. et al. [68Ga]-Albumin-PET in the Monitoring of Left Ventricular Function in Murine Models of Ischemic and Dilated Cardiomyopathy: Comparison with Cardiac MRI. Mol Imaging Biol 15, 441–449 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11307-013-0618-y

Download citation

Key words

  • Cardiomyopathy
  • Ejection fraction
  • Positron emission tomography
  • Albumin
  • Magnetic resonance imaging