Molecular Imaging and Biology

, Volume 13, Issue 6, pp 1061–1066 | Cite as

In Vivo Bioluminescence Imaging of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene Expression in Vascular Inflammation

  • Masahiro Terashima
  • Shoichi Ehara
  • Eugene Yang
  • Hisanori Kosuge
  • Philip S. Tsao
  • Thomas Quertermous
  • Christopher H. Contag
  • Michael V. McConnell
Brief Article



Inflammation plays a critical role in atherosclerosis and is associated with upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). We studied bioluminescence imaging (BLI) to track iNOS gene expression in a murine model of vascular inflammation.


Macrophage-rich vascular lesions were induced by carotid ligation plus high-fat diet and streptozotocin-induced diabetes in 18 iNOS-luc reporter mice. In vivo iNOS expression was imaged serially by BLI over 14 days, followed by in situ BLI and histology.


BLI signal from ligated carotids increased over 14 days (9.7 ± 4.4 × 103 vs. 4.4 ± 1.7 × 103 photons/s/cm2/sr at baseline, p < 0.001 vs. baseline, p < 0.05 vs. sham controls). Histology confirmed substantial macrophage infiltration, with iNOS and luciferase expression, only in ligated left carotid arteries and not controls.


BLI allows in vivo detection of iNOS expression in murine carotid lesions and may provide a valuable approach for monitoring vascular gene expression and inflammation in small animal models.

Key words

Vascular inflammation Inducible nitric oxide synthase Bioluminescence Macrophages Atherosclerosis 


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Copyright information

© Academy of Molecular Imaging and Society for Molecular Imaging 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Masahiro Terashima
    • 1
  • Shoichi Ehara
    • 1
  • Eugene Yang
    • 2
  • Hisanori Kosuge
    • 1
  • Philip S. Tsao
    • 1
  • Thomas Quertermous
    • 1
  • Christopher H. Contag
    • 3
    • 4
  • Michael V. McConnell
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Cardiovascular MedicineStanford University School of MedicineStanfordUSA
  2. 2.Division of CardiologyUniversity of Washington School of MedicineSeattleUSA
  3. 3.Department of PediatricsStanford University School of MedicineStanfordUSA
  4. 4.Department Microbiology/ImmunologyStanford University School of MedicineStanfordUSA

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