Comparative metabolome-based classification of Senna drugs: a prospect for phyto-equivalency of its different commercial products
The demand to develop efficient and reliable analytical methods for the quality control of nutraceuticals is on the rise, together with an increase in the legal requirements for safe and consistent levels of its active principles.
To establish a reliable model for the quality control of widely used Senna preparations used as laxatives and assess its phyto-equivalency.
A comparative metabolomics approach via NMR and MS analyses was employed for the comprehensive measurement of metabolites and analyzed using chemometrics.
Under optimized conditions, 30 metabolites were simultaneously identified and quantified including anthraquinones, bianthrones, acetophenones, flavonoid conjugates, naphthalenes, phenolics, and fatty acids. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to define relative metabolite differences among Senna preparations. Furthermore, quantitative 1H NMR (qHNMR) was employed to assess absolute metabolites levels in preparations. Results revealed that 6-hydroxy musizin or tinnevellin were correlated with active metabolites levels, suggesting the use of either of these naphthalene glycosides as markers for official Senna drugs authentication.
This study provides the first comparative metabolomics approach utilizing NMR and UPLC–MS to reveal for secondary metabolite compositional differences in Senna preparations that could readily be applied as a reliable quality control model for its analysis.
KeywordsSenna alexandrina NMR UPLC–MS Metabolomics Principal component analysis Laxative
Prof. Mohamed A. Farag thanks The American University in Cairo Research Support Grant (SSE-CHEM-MF-FY18-FY19-RG-(1-18)-2017-10-16-26-34) and Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, Germany, for financial support.
MAF conducted the experiments; MAF performed the data analysis, ASS, SEA co-wrote the manuscript; ASS and AP analysed NMR results and revised assignments, MAF and LAW designed the study and edited the manuscript. All authors approved the final version of the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Research involving human and animal participants
This article does not contain any studies with human and/or animal participants performed by any of the authors.
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