Wine and grape marc spirits metabolomics
Mass spectrometry (MS)-based and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic analyses play a key role in the field of metabolomics due to their important advantages. The use of metabolomics in wine and grape marc spirits allows a more holistic perspective in monitoring and gaining information on the making processes and thus it can assist on the improvement of their quality.
This review surveys the latest metabolomics approaches for wine and grape marc spirits with a focus on the description of MS-based and NMR spectroscopic analytical techniques.
We reviewed the literature to identify metabolomic studies of wine and grape marc spirits that were published until the end of 2017, with the key term combinations of ‘metabolomics’, ‘wine’ and ‘grape marc spirits’. Through the reference lists from these studies, additional articles were identified.
The results of this review showed that the application of different metabolomics approaches has significantly increased the knowledge of wine metabolome and grape marc spirits; however there is not yet a single analytical platform that can completely separate, detect and identify all metabolites in one analysis.
The authentication and quality control of wines and grape marc spirits has to be taken with caution, since the product’s chemical composition could be affected by many factors. Despite intrinsic limitations, NMR spectroscopy and MS based strategies remain the key analytical methods in metabolomics studies. Authenticity, traceability and health issues related to their consumption are the major research initiatives in wine and grape marc spirits metabolomics analysis.
KeywordsMetabolic profiling Wine Grape marc spirits NMR LC–MS GC–MS
Organization of Vine and Wine
Nuclear magnetic resonance
Ion cyclotron resonance
Tandem mass spectrometry
Principal component analysis
Partial least squares
Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization
Quadrupole time of flight
Selected reaction monitoring
Multiple reaction monitoring
Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography
Reversed phase liquid chromatography
Ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography
Solid phase microextraction
Liquid liquid extraction
Solid phase extraction
Stir-bar sorptive extraction
Selected ion monitoring
Active dry yeasts
The authors are grateful to Prof. S. Kalogiannis for careful reading of the manuscript and useful comments.
DD wrote the manuscript. GT and AZ contributed with the literature search and the structure of the manuscript. All authors revised and approved the final version of the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Dimitra Diamantidou, Anastasia Zotou and Georgios Theodoridis declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal participants performed by any of the authors.
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