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Metabolomics

, 14:159 | Cite as

Wine and grape marc spirits metabolomics

  • Dimitra Diamantidou
  • Anastasia Zotou
  • Georgios TheodoridisEmail author
Review Article

Abstract

Introduction

Mass spectrometry (MS)-based and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic analyses play a key role in the field of metabolomics due to their important advantages. The use of metabolomics in wine and grape marc spirits allows a more holistic perspective in monitoring and gaining information on the making processes and thus it can assist on the improvement of their quality.

Objectives

This review surveys the latest metabolomics approaches for wine and grape marc spirits with a focus on the description of MS-based and NMR spectroscopic analytical techniques.

Methods

We reviewed the literature to identify metabolomic studies of wine and grape marc spirits that were published until the end of 2017, with the key term combinations of ‘metabolomics’, ‘wine’ and ‘grape marc spirits’. Through the reference lists from these studies, additional articles were identified.

Results

The results of this review showed that the application of different metabolomics approaches has significantly increased the knowledge of wine metabolome and grape marc spirits; however there is not yet a single analytical platform that can completely separate, detect and identify all metabolites in one analysis.

Conclusions

The authentication and quality control of wines and grape marc spirits has to be taken with caution, since the product’s chemical composition could be affected by many factors. Despite intrinsic limitations, NMR spectroscopy and MS based strategies remain the key analytical methods in metabolomics studies. Authenticity, traceability and health issues related to their consumption are the major research initiatives in wine and grape marc spirits metabolomics analysis.

Keywords

Metabolic profiling Wine Grape marc spirits NMR LC–MS GC–MS 

Abbreviations

OIV

Organization of Vine and Wine

MS

Mass spectrometry

NMR

Nuclear magnetic resonance

QC

Quality control

LC

Liquid chromatography

GC

Gas chromatography

CE

Capillary electrophoresis

FT

Fourier transformation

ICR

Ion cyclotron resonance

MS/MS

Tandem mass spectrometry

PCA

Principal component analysis

PLS

Partial least squares

DA

Discriminant analysis

LC

Liquid chromatography

ESI

Electrospray ionization

APCI

Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization

TQ

Triple quadrupole

QTOF

Quadrupole time of flight

SRM

Selected reaction monitoring

MRM

Multiple reaction monitoring

HILIC

Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography

RPLC

Reversed phase liquid chromatography

UHPLC

Ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography

SPME

Solid phase microextraction

HS

Headspace

LLE

Liquid liquid extraction

SPE

Solid phase extraction

SBSE

Stir-bar sorptive extraction

SIM

Selected ion monitoring

IDYs

Active dry yeasts

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to Prof. S. Kalogiannis for careful reading of the manuscript and useful comments.

Author contributions

DD wrote the manuscript. GT and AZ contributed with the literature search and the structure of the manuscript. All authors revised and approved the final version of the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Dimitra Diamantidou, Anastasia Zotou and Georgios Theodoridis declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal participants performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

11306_2018_1458_MOESM1_ESM.docx (164 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 164 KB)

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of ChemistryAristotle University of ThessalonikiThessalonikiGreece

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