, 14:159 | Cite as

Wine and grape marc spirits metabolomics

  • Dimitra Diamantidou
  • Anastasia Zotou
  • Georgios TheodoridisEmail author
Review Article



Mass spectrometry (MS)-based and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic analyses play a key role in the field of metabolomics due to their important advantages. The use of metabolomics in wine and grape marc spirits allows a more holistic perspective in monitoring and gaining information on the making processes and thus it can assist on the improvement of their quality.


This review surveys the latest metabolomics approaches for wine and grape marc spirits with a focus on the description of MS-based and NMR spectroscopic analytical techniques.


We reviewed the literature to identify metabolomic studies of wine and grape marc spirits that were published until the end of 2017, with the key term combinations of ‘metabolomics’, ‘wine’ and ‘grape marc spirits’. Through the reference lists from these studies, additional articles were identified.


The results of this review showed that the application of different metabolomics approaches has significantly increased the knowledge of wine metabolome and grape marc spirits; however there is not yet a single analytical platform that can completely separate, detect and identify all metabolites in one analysis.


The authentication and quality control of wines and grape marc spirits has to be taken with caution, since the product’s chemical composition could be affected by many factors. Despite intrinsic limitations, NMR spectroscopy and MS based strategies remain the key analytical methods in metabolomics studies. Authenticity, traceability and health issues related to their consumption are the major research initiatives in wine and grape marc spirits metabolomics analysis.


Metabolic profiling Wine Grape marc spirits NMR LC–MS GC–MS 



Organization of Vine and Wine


Mass spectrometry


Nuclear magnetic resonance


Quality control


Liquid chromatography


Gas chromatography


Capillary electrophoresis


Fourier transformation


Ion cyclotron resonance


Tandem mass spectrometry


Principal component analysis


Partial least squares


Discriminant analysis


Liquid chromatography


Electrospray ionization


Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization


Triple quadrupole


Quadrupole time of flight


Selected reaction monitoring


Multiple reaction monitoring


Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography


Reversed phase liquid chromatography


Ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography


Solid phase microextraction




Liquid liquid extraction


Solid phase extraction


Stir-bar sorptive extraction


Selected ion monitoring


Active dry yeasts



The authors are grateful to Prof. S. Kalogiannis for careful reading of the manuscript and useful comments.

Author contributions

DD wrote the manuscript. GT and AZ contributed with the literature search and the structure of the manuscript. All authors revised and approved the final version of the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Dimitra Diamantidou, Anastasia Zotou and Georgios Theodoridis declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal participants performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

11306_2018_1458_MOESM1_ESM.docx (164 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 164 KB)


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of ChemistryAristotle University of ThessalonikiThessalonikiGreece

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