Comparative metabolome analysis of ruminal changes in Holstein dairy cows fed low- or high-concentrate diets
- 547 Downloads
Currently, information on the comprehensive changes in the ruminal metabolites of dairy cows fed high-concentrate diet is limited.
This study aimed to compare the composition of whole-ruminal metabolites in dairy cows that were fed a low concentrate diet or a high concentrate diet using modern metabolome analysis.
Cows were fed a low-concentrate diet (LC; 40% concentrate feeds, dry matter (DM) basis) or a high-concentrate diet (HC; 70% concentrate feeds, DM basis). GC/MS was used to analyze rumen fluid samples.
As compared with the LC group, HC diet significantly increased the concentration of bacterial degradation products (included xanthine, hypoxanthine, uracil, etc.), some toxic compounds (included lipopolysaccharide, biogenic amines, ethanolamine, etc.) and 15 amino acids (included alanine, leucine, glycine, etc.). The enrichment analysis of differentially expressed metabolites indicated that three pathways, including aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis; phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan biosynthesis; and valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis, were significantly enriched after the diet treatments. Correlation network analysis revealed that HC diets altered the ruminal metabolic pattern, and the metabolites in the HC group were more complicated than those in the LC group. The correlations between ruminal metabolites and blood parameters were mainly centralized in the ruminal metabolites and albumin (40 metabolites), followed by globulin (18 metabolites) and total protein (6 metabolites).
These findings revealed that HC feeding altered the concentrations of ruminal metabolites as well as the metabolic pattern, and the rumen metabolism could be reflected by blood metabolism to a certain degree.
KeywordsHigh-concentrate diets Rumen metabolism Metabolome LPS Biogenic amines
This study was funded by the Open Project of Beijing Key Laboratory of Dairy Cow Nutrition, Beijing University of Agriculture, China.
The authors’ contributions are as follows: RZ carried out the majority of the animal studies including animal care, sample collection and the measurements of ruminal parameters. RZ and SM carried out data interpretation and manuscript preparation. SM, LJ. and WZ were responsible for the conception of the project and the oversight of the experiment.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Atasoglu, C., Valdés, C., Walker, N. D., Newbold, C. J., & Wallace, R. J. (1998). De novo synthesis of amino acids by the ruminal bacteria Prevotella bryantii B14, Selenomonas ruminantium HD4, and Streptococcus bovis ES1. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 64, 2836–2843.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Bastian, M., Heymann, S., & Jacomy, M. (2009). Gephi: an open source software for exploring and manipulating networks. Proceedings of the Third International ICWSM Conference, 8, 361–362.Google Scholar
- Kind, T., Wohlgemuth, G., Lee, D. Y., Lu, Y., Palazoglu, M., Shahbaz, S., et al. (2009). FiehnLib: mass spectral and retention index libraries for metabolomics based on quadrupole and time-of-flight gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Analytical Chemistry, 81, 10038–10048.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Kuwahata, M., & Kido, Y. (2015). Branched chain amino acid supplementation and plasma albumin. In Branched chain amino acids in clinical nutrition. pp. 159–168. Springer: New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Moco, S., & Ross, A. B. (2015). Can we use metabolomics to understand changes to gut microbiota populations and function? A nutritional perspective. In Metabonomics and gut microbiota in nutrition and disease (pp. 83–108). London: Springer.Google Scholar
- Razzaque, M. A., & Topps, J. H. (1972). Utilization of dietary nucleic-acids by sheep. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 31, A105–A106.Google Scholar