Metabolomics as a tool for the authentication of rose extracts used in flavour and fragrance area
- 331 Downloads
Natural extracts used in flavour and fragrances are exposed to authentication issues. Companies working in this industrial market acquire the raw materials locally but also abroad, sourcing exotic plants with specific olfactive features or lower costs of production. The geographical origin, the botanical variety, environmental conditions, extraction processes and storage conditions represent some parameters affecting the natural extract quality. All these factors are likely to affect the sensorial properties and especially the organoleptic characteristics of the extract. In addition, fraudulent practices known as adulterations have also an impact on the quality. Sensitive and precise analytical techniques are required to identify adulterations among other sources of variability. In this context, the highly valuable rose absolute was selected as a model study for its importance in perfumery. The existence of two botanical species and several production countries are additional reasons that make this extract an interesting case study. Because the usual GC–MS metabolomic approach is not able to cover the broad range of non-volatile compounds, complementary approaches are required. An UHPLC-ToFMS fingerprinting approach was therefore developed to allow the identification of non-volatile markers of the two closely related species of the genus Rosa. Thus, 12-oxophytodienoic acid was identified as a biomarker (level 2 according to MSI guideline) enabling the distinction between R. centifolia and R. damascena. Our results finally underline the efficiency of the UHPLC-ToFMS metabolomic approach for the qualification of odorant extracts.
KeywordsMetabolomics Non-targeted Validation Authentication Absolutes UHPLC-ToFMS Rosa centifolia Rosa damascena
- Do, T.K.T., Hadji-Minaglou, F., Antoniotti, S., & Fernandez, X. (2015). Authenticity of essential oils. Trends in Analytical Chemistry 66, 146–157.Google Scholar
- Garnero, J., Guichard, G., & Buil, P. (1976). L’huile essentielle et la concrète de rose de Turquie. Rivista italiana essenze profumi piante officinali aromi saponi cosmetici aerosol n° ind (1976.03).Google Scholar
- Glauser, G., Veyrat, N., Rochat, B., Wolfender, J. L., & Turlings, T. C. (2013). Ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for plant metabolomics: A systematic comparison of high-resolution quadrupole-time-of-flight and single stage Orbitrap mass spectrometers. Journal of Chromatography A, 1292, 151–159.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Guenther, E. (1952). The essential oils. New York: D. Van Nostrand Company.Google Scholar
- Jirovetz, L., Buchbauer, G., Stoyanova, A., Balinova, A., Guangjiun, Z., & Xihan, M. (2005). Solid phase microextraction/gas chromatographic and olfactory analysis of the scent and fixative properties of the essential oil of Rosa damascena L. from China. Flavour Fragrance Journal, 20(1), 7–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mazollier, A. (2012). Développement de méthodologies analytiques et statistiques innovantes pour le contrôle de l’authenticité de matières premières pour les industries de la cosmétique et de la parfumerie, PhD in chemistry, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Lyon.Google Scholar
- Monin, C. (2010). L’Encyclopédie des Matières Premières Naturelles pour la Parfumerie. vol 22.214.171.124. Hubsoft.Google Scholar
- Naves, Y.-R. (1974). Technologie et Chimie des Parfums Naturels. Paris: Masson et CIE.Google Scholar
- Schipilliti, L., Dugo, G., Santi, L., Dugo, P., & Mondello, L. (2011). Authentication of bergamot essential oil by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometer (GC-C-IRMS). Journal of Essential Oil Research, 23(2), 60–71.Google Scholar
- Zrira, S. (2006). La rose du Dadès. www.agrimaroc.net/146.pdf.