Metabolite profiling of Clostridium difficile ribotypes using small molecular weight volatile organic compounds
- 693 Downloads
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by cultures of ten different Clostridium difficile ribotypes have been profiled using proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometry. A total of 69 VOCs were identified and combinations of these VOCs were found to be characteristic for each of the ribotypes. The VOC patterns, with the aid of a statistical analysis, have been shown to be useful in distinguishing different ribotypes. A tentative assignment of different masses also shows that different ribotypes have markedly different emissions of methanol, p-cresol, dimethylamine and a range sulfur compounds (ethylene sulfide, dimethylsulfide and methyl thioacetate), which point to VOCs as potential indicators of different metabolic pathways in virulent and less-virulent strains. The results establish the potential of detecting emitted VOC metabolites to differentiate between closely related C. difficile ribotypes and in the longer term provide metabolic insight into virulence.
KeywordsVolatile organic compounds Clostridium difficile Ribotype
- Hargreaves, K. R., Colvin, H. V., Patel, K. V., Clokie, J. J. P., & Clokie, M. R. J. (2013). Genetically diverse Clostridium difficile strains harboring abundant prophages in an estuarine environment. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 79, 6236–6243. doi:10.1128/aem.01849-13.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rimbault, A., Niel, P., Darbord, J. C., & Leluan, G. (1986). Headspace gas-chromatographic mass-spectrometric analysis of light-hydrocarbons and voaltile organosulfur compounds in reduced-pressure cultures of Clostridium. Journal of Chromatography, 375, 11–25. doi:10.1016/s0378-4347(00)83687-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Scotter, J. M., Allardyce, R. A., Langford, V., Hill, A., & Murdoch, D. R. (2006). The rapid evaluation of bacterial growth in blood cultures by selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) and comparison with the BacT/ALERT automated blood culture system. Journal of Microbiological Methods, 65, 628–631. doi:10.1016/j.mimet.2005.09.016.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wiegand, P. N., Nathwani, D., Wilcox, M. H., Stephens, J., Shelbaya, A., & Haider, S. (2012). Clinical and economic burden of Clostridium difficile infection in Europe: a systematic review of healthcare-facility-acquired infection. Journal of Hospital Infection, 81, 1–14. doi:10.1016/j.jhin.2012.02.004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar