Principal component and hierarchical clustering analysis of metabolites in destructive weeds; polygonaceous plants
- 661 Downloads
Comprehensive analysis of metabolites using capillary electrophoresis–mass spectrometry was carried out in harmful weeds belonging to Polygonaceae. A principal component analysis revealed clear distinctions among eight Rumex species and Fallopia japonica. Hierarchical clustering data showed that respective metabolites can be grouped due to species differences. There was a positive relationship between oxalate and citrate, oxalate and ascorbate, and oxalate and glutamine. The amount of oxalate per leaf fresh weight was not affected by increased concentrations of exogenously supplied nutrients from Hoagland’s formulation in one of the most destructive weeds R. obtusifolius. The oxalate accumulation in this plant is independent of external nutrient level, where nutrient-rich environments apparently stimulate internal constituents such as amino acids and other metabolites.
KeywordsPolygonaceae Rumex Metabolite profile Capillary electrophoresis–mass spectrometry Oxalate Principal component analysis Hierarchical clustering analysis
We thank to Dr. Masaki Tateno, Dr. Satoshi Kobayashi, Dr. Mitsunori Hayashi, Dr. Takuji Nakamura and Dr. Jun Ishii for providing materials and helpful advice. This research was supported by a grant from the MEXT, Japan, CREST, JST, Japan, and the Program for Promotion of Basic and Applied Researches for Innovations in Bio-oriented Industry (BRAIN).
- Frye, A. S. L., & Kron, K. A. (2003). rbcL phylogeny and character evolution in Polygonaceae. Systematic Botany, 28, 326–332.Google Scholar
- Holm, L. G., Plucknett, D. L., Pancho, J. V., & Herberger, J. P. (1977). Rumex crispus and Rumex obtusifolius. In L. G. Holm (Ed.), The world’s worst weeds: Distribution and biology (pp. 401–408). Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii.Google Scholar
- Nashiki, M., Sawada, H., Harashima, N., & Sato, K. (1988). Studies on weed management in pastures. III. Decrease in the population density of orchardgrass in a sward infested with broadleaf-dock. Weed Research, Japan, 33, 253–259.Google Scholar
- Spoerke, D. G., & Smolinke, S. C. (1990). Oxalates. In D. G. Spoerke & S. C. Smolinke (Eds.), Toxicity of houseplants (pp. 29–32). Florida: CRC press.Google Scholar