, Volume 3, Issue 4, pp 439–451

Variation of metabolites in normal human urine

  • Erik J. Saude
  • Darryl Adamko
  • Brian H. Rowe
  • Tom Marrie
  • Brian D. Sykes
Original Paper


Urine is often sampled from patients participating in clinical and metabolomic studies. Biological homeostasis occurs in humans, but little is known about the variability of metabolites found in urine. It is important to define the inter- and intra-individual metabolite variance within a normal population before scientific or clinical conclusions are made regarding different pathophysiologies. This study investigates the variability of selected urine metabolites in a group of 60 healthy men and women over a period of 30 days. To monitor individual variation, 6 women from the normal population were randomly selected and followed for 30 days. To determine the influence of extraneous environmental factors urine was collected from 25 guinea pigs with similar genetics, diet, and living environment. For both studies, 24 metabolites were identified and quantified using high-resolution 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The data demonstrated large inter and intra-individual variation in metabolite concentrations in both normal human and control animal populations. A defined normal baseline is essential before any conclusions may be drawn regarding changes in urine metabolite concentrations.


Metabolite Metabolomics NMR Normal Urine 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erik J. Saude
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Darryl Adamko
    • 2
    • 3
  • Brian H. Rowe
    • 2
    • 4
  • Tom Marrie
    • 5
  • Brian D. Sykes
    • 1
  1. 1.CIHR Group in Protein Structure and Function, Department of BiochemistryUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  2. 2.Pulmonary Research GroupUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  3. 3.Department of PediatricsUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  4. 4.Department of Emergency MedicineUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  5. 5.Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and DentistryUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada

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