, Volume 3, Issue 2, pp 87–100

Evaluation of NMR spectral data of urine in conjunction with measured clinical chemistry and histopathology parameters to assess the effects of liver and kidney toxicants

  • Laura K. Schnackenberg
  • Yvonne P. Dragan
  • Michael D. Reily
  • Donald G. Robertson
  • Richard D. Beger


Single low and high doses of several compounds with known renal toxic effects (para-aminophenol, puromycin aminonucleoside, sodium chromate, and hexachlorobutadiene,) or known liver toxic effects (galactosamine, allyl alcohol, and thioacetamide) were administered to male Wistar rats in groups of 4 or 8 for each compound. Predose urine samples (Day 0) and samples from post-dosing (Days 1–4) were collected for each rat and monitored by 1D 1H NMR. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the NMR spectra was used to investigate differences between dose levels for each compound individually. The findings from PCA at both dose levels for each compound were examined in the context of the corresponding clinical chemistry and pathology data collected during the study. The PCA clustering of NMR spectra from rats dosed with each individual compound were shown to be associated with the measured levels of creatinine, BUN, AST, ALT and histopathology findings. Finally, scaled-to-maximum, aligned, and reduced trajectories (SMART) analysis was applied to compare the temporal metabolic trajectories obtained for each animal at each dose level of the administered compounds. By day 4, the SMART trajectories for allyl alcohol and hexachlorobutadiene had returned to predose levels indicating a recovery response, however, the high dose SMART trajectories for para-aminophenol, puromycin aminonucleoside, sodium chromate, and galactosamine did not appear to return to predose levels indicating a prolonged toxic effect.


metabonomics metabolic trajectory NMR renal toxicity hepatotoxicity 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laura K. Schnackenberg
    • 1
  • Yvonne P. Dragan
    • 1
  • Michael D. Reily
    • 2
  • Donald G. Robertson
    • 2
  • Richard D. Beger
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Systems ToxicologyNational Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug AdministrationJeffersonUSA
  2. 2.Metabonomics Evaluation GroupPfizer Global Research and Development, Ann Arbor LaboratoriesAnn ArborUSA

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