Advertisement

Purinergic Signalling

, Volume 10, Issue 1, pp 103–155 | Cite as

Purinergic signalling in the urinary tract in health and disease

  • Geoffrey Burnstock
Review Article

Abstract

Purinergic signalling is involved in a number of physiological and pathophysiological activities in the lower urinary tract. In the bladder of laboratory animals there is parasympathetic excitatory cotransmission with the purinergic and cholinergic components being approximately equal, acting via P2X1 and muscarinic receptors, respectively. Purinergic mechanosensory transduction occurs where ATP, released from urothelial cells during distension of bladder and ureter, acts on P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors on suburothelial sensory nerves to initiate the voiding reflex, via low threshold fibres, and nociception, via high threshold fibres. In human bladder the purinergic component of parasympathetic cotransmission is less than 3 %, but in pathological conditions, such as interstitial cystitis, obstructed and neuropathic bladder, the purinergic component is increased to 40 %. Other pathological conditions of the bladder have been shown to involve purinoceptor-mediated activities, including multiple sclerosis, ischaemia, diabetes, cancer and bacterial infections. In the ureter, P2X7 receptors have been implicated in inflammation and fibrosis. Purinergic therapeutic strategies are being explored that hopefully will be developed and bring benefit and relief to many patients with urinary tract disorders.

Keywords

Bladder Urethra Ureter Detrusor overactivity Cancer Infection 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Anthony Ford made particularly helpful suggestions that improved the first draft of this review. The author is very grateful to Dr Gillian E. Knight for her invaluable assistance in the preparation of this review article.

References

  1. 1.
    Abbracchio MP, Burnstock G (1994) Purinoceptors: are there families of P2X and P2Y purinoceptors? Pharmacol Ther 64:445–475PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Abbracchio MP, Burnstock G (1998) Purinergic signalling: pathophysiological roles. Jpn J Pharmacol 78:113–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Abrams P (2003) Describing bladder storage function: overactive bladder syndrome and detrusor overactivity. Urology 62:28–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Acevedo CG, Contreras E (1985) Possible involvement of adenine nucleotides in the neurotransmission of the mouse urinary bladder. Comp Biochem Physiol C 82:357–361PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Acevedo CG, Contreras E (1989) Effect of extracellular calcium and calcium channel antagonists on ATP and field stimulation induced contractions of the mouse urinary bladder. Gen Pharmacol 20:811–815PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Acevedo CG, Contreras E, Escalona J, Lewin J, Huidobro-Toro JP (1992) Pharmacological characterization of adenosine A1 and A2 receptors in the bladder: evidence for a modulatory adenosine tone regulating non-adrenergic non-cholinergic neurotransmission. Br J Pharmacol 107:120–126PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Acevedo CG, Lewin J, Contreras E, Huidobro-Toro JP (1990) Bradykinin facilitates the purinergic motor component of the rat bladder neurotransmission. Neurosci Lett 113:227–232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ahluwalia A, Giuliani S, Scotland R, Maggi CA (1998) Ovalbumin-induced neurogenic inflammation in the bladder of sensitized rats. Br J Pharmacol 124:190–196PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Aizawa N, Igawa Y, Andersson KE, Iijima K, Nishizawa O, Wyndaele JJ (2011) Effects of intravesical instillation of ATP on rat bladder primary afferent activity and its relationship with capsaicin-sensitivity. Neurourol Urodyn 30:163–168PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Aizawa N, Wyndaele JJ, Homma Y, Igawa Y (2012) Effects of TRPV4 cation channel activation on the primary bladder afferent activities of the rat. Neurourol Urodyn 31:148–155PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Akasu T, Shinnick-Gallagher P, Gallagher JP (1984) Adenosine mediates a slow hyperpolarizing synaptic potential in autonomic neurones. Nature 311:62–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Akino H, Nagase K, Watanabe N, Tanase K, Oyama N, Miwa Y, Yokoyama O (2011) ATP release from bladders is increased in-vivo and suppressed by alpha-1 adrenoceptor blocker in a rat model of bladder outlet obstruction. Eur Urol Suppl 10:303–304Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Albino-Teixeira A, Azevedo I, Branco D, Osswald W (1990) Purine agonists prevent trophic changes caused by sympathetic denervation. Eur J Pharmacol 179:141–149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Alkondon M, Ganguly DK (1980) Release of prostaglandin E from the isolated urinary bladder of the guinea-pig. Br J Pharmacol 69:573–577PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Alm P (1978) Cholinergic innervation of the human urethra and urinary bladder: a histochemical study & review of methodology. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol 43:56–62Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Alm P, Elmér M (1975) Adrenergic and cholinergic innervation of the rat urinary bladder. Acta Physiol Scand 94:36–45Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Alm P, Elmér M (1979) Adrenergic reinnervation of the denervated rat urinary bladder. Experientia 35:1387–1388PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ambache N, Killick SW, Woodley JP (1977) Evidence against purinergic motor transmission in guinea-pig urinary bladder. Br J Pharmacol 61:464PPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ambache N, Zar MA (1970) Non-cholinergic transmission by post-ganglionic motor neurones in the mammalian bladder. J Physiol 210:761–783PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ammons WS (1989) Primate spinothalamic cell response to ureteral occlusion. Brain Res 496:124–130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Andersen JT, Bradley WE (1976) Abnormalities of bladder innervation in diabetes mellitus. Urology 7:442–448PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Anderson GF (1982) Evidence for a prostaglandin link in the purinergic activation of rabbit bladder smooth muscle. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 220:347–352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Andersson K-E (1993) Pharmacology of lower urinary tract smooth muscles and penile erectile tissues. Pharmacol Rev 45:253–308Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Andersson KE (2001) Neurotransmission and drug effects in urethral smooth muscle. Scand J Urol Nephrol Suppl 207:26–34Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Andersson KE (2002) Bladder activation: afferent mechanisms. Urology 59:43–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Andersson K-E, Garcia-Pascual A, Forman A, Tøttrup A (1991) Non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic nerve-mediated relaxation of rabbit urethra is caused by nitric oxide. Acta Physiol Scand 141:133–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Andersson KE, Hedlund P (2002) Pharmacologic perspective on the physiology of the lower urinary tract. Urology 60:13–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Andersson K-E, Husted S, Sjögren C (1980) Contribution of prostaglandins to the adenosine triphosphate-induced contraction of rabbit urinary bladder. Br J Pharmacol 70:443–452PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Andersson PO, Malmgren A, Uvelius B (1988) Cystometrical and in vitro evaluation of urinary bladder function in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. J Urol 139:1359–1362PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Andersson K-E, Mattiasson A, Sjögren C (1983) Electrically induced relaxation of the noradrenaline contracted isolated urethra from rabbit and man. J Urol 129:210–214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Andersson K-E, Sjögren C (1982) Aspects on the physiology and pharmacology of the bladder and urethra. Prog Neurobiol 19:71–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Apodaca G (2004) The uroepithelium: not just a passive barrier. Traffic 5:117–128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Apodaca G, Balestreire E, Birder LA (2007) The uroepithelial-associated sensory web. Kidney Int 72:1057–1064PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Apostolidis A, Dasgupta P, Fowler CJ (2006) Proposed mechanism for the efficacy of injected botulinum toxin in the treatment of human detrusor overactivity. Eur Urol 49:644–650PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Apostolidis A, Popat R, Yiangou Y, Cockayne D, Ford AP, Davis JB, Dasgupta P, Fowler CJ, Anand P (2005) Decreased sensory receptors P2X3 and TRPV1 in suburothelial nerve fibers following intradetrusor injections of botulinum toxin for human detrusor overactivity. J Urol 174:977–982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Araki I, Du S, Kobayashi H, Sawada N, Mochizuki T, Zakoji H, Takeda M (2008) Roles of mechanosensitive ion channels in bladder sensory transduction and overactive bladder. Int J Urol 15:681–687PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Aronsson P, Andersson M, Ericsson T, Giglio D (2010) Assessment and characterization of purinergic contractions and relaxations in the rat urinary bladder. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 107:603–613PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Aronsson P, Johnsson M, Vesela R, Winder M, Tobin G (2012) Adenosine receptor antagonism suppresses functional and histological inflammatory changes in the rat urinary bladder. Auton Neurosci 171:49–57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Artim DE, Birder LA, de Groat WC (2007) Purinergic mechanisms in human bladder cancer cells. FASEB J 21:A1349–A134bGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Atala A, Vacanti JP, Peters CA, Mandell J, Retik AB, Freeman MR (1992) Formation of urothelial structures in vivo from dissociated cells attached to biodegradable polymer scaffolds in vitro. J Urol 148:658–662PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Athanasopoulos A, Cruz F (2011) The medical treatment of overactive bladder, including current and future treatments. Expert Opin Pharmacother 12:1041–1055PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Atiemo H, Wynes J, Chuo J, Nipkow L, Sklar GN, Chai TC (2005) Effect of botulinum toxin on detrusor overactivity induced by intravesical adenosine triphosphate and capsaicin in a rat model. Urology 65:622–626PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Barkai L, Szabo L (1993) Urinary bladder dysfunction in diabetic children with and without subclinical cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy. Eur J Pediatr 152:190–192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Barras M, Van der Graaf PH, Angel I (1996) Characterisation of the 5-HT receptor potentiating neurotransmission in rabbit bladder. Eur J Pharmacol 318:425–428PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Bartley O, Brolin I, Fagerberg SE, Wilhelmsen L (1966) Neurogenic disorders of the bladder in diabetes mellitus. A clinical–roentgenological investigation. Acta Med Scand 180:187–198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Batra S (1979) Subcellular distribution and cytosolic receptors of progesterone and of estradiol-17β in the rabbit myometrium: effect of progesterone treatment. Biol Reprod 21:483–489PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Batra S (1980) Estrogen and smooth muscle function. Trends Pharmacol Sci 1:388Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Batra AK, Hanno PM, Ruggieri MR (1992) Detubularization-induced contractile response change of the ileum following ileocystoplasty. J Urol 148:195–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Batra AK, Wein AJ, Ruggieri MR, Levin RM (1987) Comparative response of smooth muscle strips of bladder and bowel to various pharmacological agents. Neurourol Urodyn 6:351–357Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Bayliss M, Wu C, Newgreen D, Mundy AR, Fry CH (1999) A quantitative study of atropine-resistant contractile responses in human detrusor smooth muscle, from stable, unstable and obstructed bladders. J Urol 162:1833–1839PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Beckel JM, Birder LA (2012) Differential expression and function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the urinary bladder epithelium of the rat. J Physiol 590:1465–1480PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Belis JA, Colby JE, Adlestein LB, Westfall DP (1981) Characterization of neurotransmission in the bladder using arylazido-amino-propionyl ATP (ANAPP3). Am Coll Surg XXXII:625–627Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Bhat MB, Mishra SK, Raviprakash V (1989) Sources of calcium for ATP-induced contractions in rat urinary bladder smooth muscle. Eur J Pharmacol 164:163–166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Bhat MB, Mishra SK, Raviprakash V (1989) Differential susceptibility of cholinergic and noncholinergic neurogenic responses to calcium channel blockers and low Ca2+ medium in rat urinary bladder. Br J Pharmacol 96:837–842PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Birder LA (2005) More than just a barrier: urothelium as a drug target for urinary bladder pain. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 289:F489–F495PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Birder LA (2006) Urinary bladder urothelium: molecular sensors of chemical/thermal/mechanical stimuli. Vascul Pharmacol 45:221–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Birder LA, Andersson KE (2013) Urothelial signalling. Physiol Rev 93:653–680PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Birder LA, Barrick SR, Roppolo JR, Kanai AJ, de Groat WC, Kiss S, Buffington CA (2003) Feline interstitial cystitis results in mechanical hypersensitivity and altered ATP release from bladder urothelium. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 285:F423–F429PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Birder LA, de Groat WC (2007) Mechanisms of disease: involvement of the urothelium in bladder dysfunction. Nat Clin Pract Urol 4:46–54PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Birder L, de Groat W, Mills I, Morrison J, Thor K, Drake M (2010) Neural control of the lower urinary tract: peripheral and spinal mechanisms. Neurourol Urodyn 29:128–139PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Birder L, Kullmann FA, Lee H, Barrick S, de Groat W, Kanai A, Caterina M (2007) Activation of urothelial transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 by 4α-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate contributes to altered bladder reflexes in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 323:227–235PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Birder LA, Nakamura Y, Kiss S, Nealen ML, Barrick S, Kanai AJ, Wang E, Ruiz G, de Groat WC, Apodaca G, Watkins S, Caterina MJ (2002) Altered urinary bladder function in mice lacking the vanilloid receptor TRPV1. Nat Neurosci 5:856–860PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Birder LA, Ruan HZ, Chopra B, Xiang Z, Barrick S, Buffington CA, Roppolo JR, Ford AP, de Groat WC, Burnstock G (2004) Alterations in P2X and P2Y purinergic receptor expression in urinary bladder from normal cats and cats with interstitial cystitis. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 287:F1084–F1091PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Birder LA, Ruggieri M, Takeda M, van Koeveringe G, Veltkamp S, Korstanje C, Parsons B, Fry CH (2012) How does the urothelium affect bladder function in health and disease? ICI-RS 2011. Neurourol Urodyn 31:293–299PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Bishara S, Gao H, Malone-Lee M, Lunawat R, Khan S, Kelsey M, Khasriya R, King B, Malone-Lee J (2009) Increased ATP mediated contraction of isolated detrusor cells of patients with outflow obstruction. Neurourol Urodyn 28:746–747Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Blackburn GM, Kent DE, Kolkmann F (1984) The synthesis and metal binding characteristics of novel isopolar phosphonate analogues of nucleotides. J Chem Soc Perkin Trans 1(1):1119–1125Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Blaivas JG, Bhimani G, Labib KB (1979) Vesicourethral dysfunction in multiple sclerosis. J Urol 122:342–347PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Blaivas JG, Holland NJ, Giesser B, LaRocca N, Madonna M, Scheinberg L (1984) Multiple sclerosis bladder. Studies and care. Ann N Y Acad Sci 436:328–346PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Bo X, Burnstock G (1989) [3H]-α, β-methylene ATP, a radioligand labelling P2-purinoceptors. J Auton Nerv Syst 28:85–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Bo X, Burnstock G (1990) The effects of Bay K8644 and nifedipine on the responses of rat urinary bladder to electrical field stimulation, β, γ-methylene ATP and acetylcholine. Br J Pharmacol 101:494–498PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Bo X, Burnstock G (1990) High- and low-affinity binding sites for [3H]-α, β-methylene ATP in rat urinary bladder membranes. Br J Pharmacol 101:291–296PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Bo X, Burnstock G (1992) Species differences in localization of [3H]α, β-methylene ATP binding sites in urinary bladder and urethra of rat, guinea-pig and rabbit. Eur J Pharmacol 216:59–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Bo X, Burnstock G (1993) Triphosphate, the key structure of the ATP molecule responsible for interaction with P2X purinoceptors. Gen Pharmacol 24:637–640PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Bo X, Burnstock G (1995) Characterization and autoradiographic localization of [3H]α, β-methylene adenosine 5′-triphosphate binding sites in human urinary bladder. Br J Urol 76:297–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Bo X, Fischer B, Maillard M, Jacobson KA, Burnstock G (1994) Comparative studies on the affinities of ATP derivatives for P2X-purinoceptors in rat urinary bladder. Br J Pharmacol 112:1151–1159PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Boland B, Himpens B, Paques C, Casteels R, Gillis JM (1993) ATP induced-relaxation in the mouse bladder smooth muscle. Br J Pharmacol 108:749–753PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Bolego C, Abbracchio MP, Cattabeni F, Ruzza R, Puglisi L (1995) Effects of ADPβS and UTP on the rat urinary bladder smooth muscle. Res Comm Mol Pathol Pharmacol 87:75–76Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Bolego C, Pinna C, Abbracchio MP, Cattabeni F, Puglisi L (1995) The biphasic response of rat vesical smooth muscle to ATP. Br J Pharmacol 114:1557–1562PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Borvendeg SJ, Al Khrasani M, Rubini P, Fischer W, Allgaier C, Wirkner K, Himmel HM, Gillen C, Illes P (2003) Subsensitivity of P2X but not vanilloid 1 receptors in dorsal root ganglia of rats caused by cyclophosphamide cystitis. Eur J Pharmacol 474:71–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Boselli C, Bianchi L, Grana E (1997) Effect of cromakalim on the purinergic and cholinergic transmission in the rat detrusor muscle. Eur J Pharmacol 335:23–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Boselli C, Govoni S, Condino AM, D'Agostino G (2001) Bladder instability: a re-appraisal of classical experimental approaches and development of new therapeutic strategies. J Auton Pharmacol 21:219–229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Brading AF, Mostwin JL (1989) Electrical and mechanical responses of guinea-pig bladder muscle to nerve stimulation. Br J Pharmacol 98:1083–1090PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Brading AF, Williams JH (1990) Contractile responses of smooth muscle strips from rat and guinea-pig urinary bladder to transmural stimulation: effects of atropine and α, β-methylene ATP. Br J Pharmacol 99:493–498PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Bradley WE (1980) Diagnosis of urinary bladder dysfunction in diabetes mellitus. Ann Intern Med 92:323–326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Bradley E, Kadima S, Drumm B, Hollywood MA, Thornbury KD, McHale NG, Sergeant GP (2010) Novel excitatory effects of adenosine triphosphate on contractile and pacemaker activity in rabbit urethral smooth muscle. J Urol 183:801–811PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Bradley E, Kadima S, Kyle B, Hollywood MA, Thornbury KD, McHale NG, Sergeant GP (2011) P2X receptor currents in smooth muscle cells contribute to nerve mediated contractions of rabbit urethral smooth muscle. J Urol 186:745–752PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Brady CM, Apostolidis A, Yiangou Y, Baecker PA, Ford AP, Freeman A, Jacques TS, Fowler CJ, Anand P (2004) P2X3-immunoreactive nerve fibres in neurogenic detrusor overactivity and the effect of intravesical resiniferatoxin. Eur Urol 46:247–253PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Bramich NJ, Brading AF (1996) Electrical properties of smooth muscle in the guinea-pig urinary bladder. J Physiol 492:185–198PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Bratslavsky G, Whitbeck C, Horan P, Levin RM (1999) Effects of in vivo ischemia on contractile responses of rabbit bladder to field stimulation, carbachol, ATP and KCl. Pharmacology 59:221–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Breen LT, Smyth LM, Yamboliev IA, Mutafova-Yambolieva VN (2006) β-NAD is a novel nucleotide released on stimulation of nerve terminals in human urinary bladder detrusor muscle. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 290:F486–F495PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Brown AD (1977) Postmenopausal urinary problems. Clin Obstet Gynaecol 4:181–206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Brown CM, Burnstock G (1981) The structural conformation of the polyphosphate chain of the ATP molecule is critical for its promotion of prostaglandin biosynthesis. Eur J Pharmacol 69:81–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Brown C, Burnstock G, Cocks T (1979) Effects of adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) and β-γ-methylene ATP on the rat urinary bladder. Br J Pharmacol 65:97–102PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Buchthal F, Kahlson G (1944) The motor effect of adenosine triphosphate and allied phosphorus compounds on smooth mammalian muscle. Acta Physiol Scand 8:325–334Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Buck AC, McRae C, Reed PI, Chisholm GD (1974) The diabetic bladder. Proc Roy Soc Med 67:81–83PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Buffington CA, Kiss S, Kanai AJ, Dineley K, Roppolo JR, Reynolds IR, de Groat WC, Birder LA (2000) Alterations in urothelium and bladder afferents in feline interstitial cystitis. Soc Neurosci Abstr 349:2Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Burnstock G (1972) Purinergic nerves. Pharmacol Rev 24:509–581PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Burnstock G (1976) Do some nerve cells release more than one transmitter? Neuroscience 1:239–248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Burnstock G (1978) A basis for distinguishing two types of purinergic receptor. In: Straub RW, Bolis L (eds) Cell membrane receptors for drugs and hormones: a multidisciplinary approach. Raven Press, New York, pp 107–118Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Burnstock G (1990) Noradrenaline and ATP as cotransmitters in sympathetic nerves. Neurochem Int 17:357–368PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Burnstock G (1990) Co-transmission. The Fifth Heymans memorial lecture — Ghent, February 17, 1990. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 304:7–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Burnstock G (1993) Series editor. The autonomic nervous system. Volume 3. Nervous control of the urogenital system. Harwood Academic Publishers, Switzerland, pp 1–588Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Burnstock G (1995) Noradrenaline and ATP: cotransmitters and neuromodulators. J Physiol Pharmacol 46:365–384PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Burnstock G (1999) Release of vasoactive substances from endothelial cells by shear stress and purinergic mechanosensory transduction. J Anat 194:335–342PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Burnstock G (2001) Purine-mediated signalling in pain and visceral perception. Trends Pharmacol Sci 22:182–188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Burnstock G (2001) Purinergic signalling in lower urinary tract. In: Abbracchio MP, Williams M (eds) Handbook of experimental pharmacology, volume 151/I. Purinergic and pyrimidinergic signalling I — molecular, nervous and urinogenitary system function. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 423–515Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Burnstock G (2007) Purine and pyrimidine receptors. Cell Mol Life Sci 64:1471–1483PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Burnstock G (2009) Purinergic cotransmission. Exp Physiol 94:20–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Burnstock G (2011) Therapeutic potential of purinergic signalling for diseases of the urinary tract. BJU Int 107:192–204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Burnstock G (2013) Purinergic signalling in the lower urinary tract. Acta Physiol 207:40–52Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Burnstock G, Allen TGJ, Hassall CJS, Pittam BS (1987) Properties of intramural neurones cultured from the heart and bladder. In: Heym C (ed) Histochemistry and cell biology of autonomic neurons and paraganglia. Exp. Brain Res. Ser. 16. Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, pp 323–328Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Burnstock G, Cocks T, Crowe R, Kasakov L (1978) Purinergic innervation of the guinea-pig urinary bladder. Br J Pharmacol 63:125–138PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Burnstock G, Cocks T, Kasakov L, Wong HK (1978) Direct evidence for ATP release from non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic ("purinergic") nerves in the guinea-pig taenia coli and bladder. Eur J Pharmacol 49:145–149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Burnstock G, Cocks T, Paddle B, Staszewska-Barczak J (1975) Evidence that prostaglandin is responsible for the 'rebound contraction' following stimulation of non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic ('purinergic') inhibitory nerves. Eur J Pharmacol 31:360–362PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Burnstock G, Cusack NJ, Hills JM, Mackenzie I, Meghji P (1983) Studies on the stereoselectivity of the P2-purinoceptor. Br J Pharmacol 79:907–913PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Burnstock G, Cusack NJ, Meldrum LA (1984) Effects of phosphorothioate analogues of ATP, ADP and AMP on guinea-pig taenia coli and urinary bladder. Br J Pharmacol 82:369–374PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Burnstock G, Dumsday B, Smythe A (1972) Atropine resistant excitation of the urinary bladder: the possibility of transmission via nerves releasing a purine nucleotide. Br J Pharmacol 44:451–461PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Burnstock G, Fischer B, Hoyle CHV, Maillard M, Ziganshin AU, Brizzolara AL, von Isakovics A, Boyer JL, Harden TK, Jacobson KA (1994) Structure activity relationships for derivatives of adenosine 5′-triphosphate as agonists at P2 purinoceptors: heterogeneity within P2X and P2Y subtypes. Drug Dev Res 31:206–219PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Burnstock G, Holman ME (1960) Autonomic nerve-smooth muscle transmission. Nature 187:951–952PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Burnstock G, Holman ME (1961) The transmission of excitation from autonomic nerve to smooth muscle. J Physiol 155:115–133PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Burnstock G, Knight GE (2004) Cellular distribution and functions of P2 receptor subtypes in different systems. Int Rev Cytol 240:31–304PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Burnstock G, Lavin S (2002) Interstitial cells of Cajal and purinergic signalling. Auton Neurosci 97:68–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Bushfield M, Kenny BA, Parker N (1996) Facilitation by 5-HT of ATP-mediated electrically-stimulated contractions in the pig urinary bladder. Br J Pharmacol 117, 201PGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Callahan SM, Creed KE (1981) Electrical and mechanical activity of the isolated lower urinary tract of the guinea-pig. Br J Pharmacol 74:353–358PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Calvert RC, Banks FC, Thompson CS, Mikhailidis DP, Morgan RJ (2002) Chronic ethanol consumption impairs adrenoceptor- and purinoceptor-mediated relaxations in isolated rat detrusor smooth muscle. BJU Int 89:793–794PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Calvert RC, Thompson CS, Burnstock G (2008) ATP release from the human ureter on distension and P2X3 receptor expression on suburothelial sensory nerves. Purinergic Signalling 4:377–381PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Canda AE, Cross RL, Chapple CR (2006) Pharmacology of the lower urinary tract and management of overactive bladder. J Turkish German Gynecol Assoc 7:146–158Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Canda AE, Turna B, Cinar GM, Nazli O (2007) Physiology and pharmacology of the human ureter: basis for current and future treatments. Urol Int 78:289–298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Carley ME, Cliby WA, Spelsberg TC (2002) P2X3 receptor subunit messenger RNA expression in the female mouse bladder after oophorectomy with or without estrogen replacement. Am J Obstet Gynecol 187:103–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Carpenter FG, Rubin RM (1967) The motor innervation of the rat urinary bladder. J Physiol 192:609–617PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Cervero F, Sann H (1989) Mechanically evoked responses of afferent fibres innervating the guinea-pig's ureter: an in vitro study. J Physiol 412:245–266PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Chancellor MB, de Groat WC (1999) Intravesical capsaicin and resiniferatoxin therapy: spicing up the ways to treat the overactive bladder. J Urol 162:3–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Chancellor MB, Fowler CJ, Apostolidis A, de Groat WC, Smith CP, Somogyi GT, Aoki KR (2008) Drug insight: biological effects of Botulinum toxin a in the lower urinary tract. Nat Clin Pract Urol 5:319–328PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Chancellor MB, Kaplan SA, Blaivas JG (1992) The cholinergic and purinergic components of detrusor contractility in a whole rabbit bladder model. J Urol 148:906–909PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Chancellor MB, Shenot PJ, Rivas DA, Mandel S, Schwartzman RJ (1996) Urological symptomatology in patients with reflex sympathetic dystrophy. J Urol 155:634–637PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Charrua A, Cruz CD, Cruz F, Avelino A (2007) Transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily 1 is essential for the generation of noxious bladder input and bladder overactivity in cystitis. J Urol 177:1537–1541PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Charrua A, Cruz CD, Narayanan S, Gharat L, Gullapalli S, Cruz F, Avelino A (2009) GRC-6211, a new oral specific TRPV1 antagonist, decreases bladder overactivity and noxious bladder input in cystitis animal models. J Urol 181:379–386PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Chaudhry A, Downie JW, White TD (1984) Tetrodotoxin-resistant release of ATP from superfused rabbit detrusor muscle during electrical field stimulation in the presence of luciferin– luciferase. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 62:153–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Chen H-I, Brading AF (1991) The mechanism of action of putative non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic transmitters on the rabbit urinary bladder. J Auton Nerv Syst 33:178–179Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Chen X, Gebhart GF (2010) Differential purinergic signaling in bladder sensory neurons of naïve and bladder-inflamed mice. Pain 148:462–472PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Cheng Y, Allen W, Walsh C, Mansfield KJ, Burcher E, Moore KH (2009) ATP release during cystometry in women with detrusor overactivity and painful bladder syndrome: contribution to 'urgency'. Neurourol Urodyn 28:838–839Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Cheng Y, Mansfield KJ, Allen W, Millard RJ, Burcher E, Moore KH (2013) Correlation between cystometric volumes, ATP release, and pH in women with overactive bladder versus controls. Neurourol Urodyn 32:969–973PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Cheng Y, Mansfield K, Burcher E, Moore K (2012) ATP release during bladder filling in women with bladder oversensitivity. J Urol 187:e934Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Cheng Y, Mansfield KJ, Sandow SL, Sadananda P, Burcher E, Moore KH (2011) Porcine bladder urothelial, myofibroblast, and detrusor muscle cells: characterization and ATP release. Front Pharmacol 2:27PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Cheng S, Scigalla FP, Speroni di Fenizio P, Zhang ZG, Stolzenburg JU, Neuhaus J (2011) ATP enhances spontaneous calcium activity in cultured suburothelial myofibroblasts of the human bladder. PLoS One 6:e25769PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Cheng Y, Walsh C, Mansfield K, Allen W, Moore K (2011) Relationship between bacteriuria and ATP concentration in voided urodynamic fluid: a 2-year prospective study. Neurourol Urodyn 30:921Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Chesher GB, Thorp RH (1965) The atropine-resistance of the response to intrinsic nerve stimulation of the guinea-pig bladder. Br J Pharmacol 25:288–294Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Chess-Williams R, Kang S, McDermott C (2012) Is the release of urothelial ATP, acetylcholine and prostoglandin E2 affected by the chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin? Neurourol Urodyn 31:1020Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Chess-Williams R, Mills K, McDermott C (2012) Acrolein, a metabolite of cyclophosphamide enhances basal ATP release and reactive oxygen species formation in cultured human urothelial cells. Neurourol Urodyn 31:1019Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Choo LK (1981) The effect of reactive blue, an antagonist of ATP, on the isolated urinary bladders of guinea-pig and rat. J Pharm Pharmacol 33:248–250PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Choo LK, Mitchelson F (1980) The effect of indomethacin and adenosine 5′-triphosphate on the excitatory innervation of the rate urinary bladder. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 58:1042–1048PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Chopra B, Barrick SR, Meyers S, Beckel JM, Zeidel ML, Ford AP, de Groat WC, Birder LA (2005) Expression and function of bradykinin B1 and B2 receptors in normal and inflamed rat urinary bladder urothelium. J Physiol 562:859–871PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Chopra B, Gever J, Barrick SR, Hanna-Mitchell AT, Beckel JM, Ford AP, Birder LA (2008) Expression and function of rat urothelial P2Y receptors. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 294:F821–F829PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Chua WC, Liu L, Mansfield KJ, Vaux KJ, Moore KH, Millard RJ, Burcher E (2007) Age-related changes of P2X1 receptor mRNA in the bladder detrusor from men with and without bladder outlet obstruction. Exp Gerontol 42:686–692PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Chung SD, Chien CT, Yu HJ (2013) Alterations in peripheral purinergic and muscarinic signaling of rat bladder after long-term fructose-induced metabolic syndrome. Eur J Nutr 52:347–359PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Clemow DB, Steers WD, McCarty R, Tuttle JB (1998) Altered regulation of bladder nerve growth factor and neurally mediated hyperactive voiding. Am J Physiol 275:R1279–R1286PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Cockayne DA, Dunn PM, Zhong Y, Hamilton SG, Cain GR, Knight G, Ruan H-Z, Ping Y, Nunn P, Bei M, McMahon SB, Burnstock G, Ford APDW (2005) P2X2 knockout mice and P2X2/P2X3 double knockout mice reveal a role for the P2X2 receptor subunit in mediating multiple sensory effects of ATP. J Physiol 567:621–639PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Cockayne DA, Hamilton SG, Zhu Q-M, Dunn PM, Zhong Y, Novakovic S, Malmberg AB, Cain G, Berson A, Kassotakis L, Hedley L, Lachnit WG, Burnstock G, McMahon SB, Ford APDW (2000) Urinary bladder hyporeflexia and reduced pain-related behaviour in P2X3-deficient mice. Nature 407:1011–1015PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Coelho A, Dinis P, Pinto R, Gorgal T, Silva C, Silva A, Silva J, Cruz CD, Cruz F, Avelino A (2010) Distribution of the high-affinity binding site and intracellular target of botulinum toxin type A in the human bladder. Eur Urol 57:884–890PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Conte B, Maggi CA, Meli A (1989) Vesico-inhibitory responses and capsaicin-sensitive afferents in rats. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 339:178–183PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Corsi M, Pietra C, Toson G, Trist D, Tuccitto G, Artibani W (1991) Pharmacological analysis of 5-hydroxytryptamine effects on electrically stimulated human isolated urinary bladder. Br J Pharmacol 104:719–725PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Cotton KD, Hollywood MA, Thornbury KD, McHale NG (1996) Effect of purinergic blockers on outward current in isolated smooth muscle cells of the sheep bladder. Am J Physiol 270:C969–C973PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Cowan WD, Daniel EE (1983) Human female bladder and its noncholinergic contractile function. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 61:1236–1246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Crack BE, Pollard CE, Beukers MW, Roberts SM, Hunt SF, Ingall AH, McKechnie KC, IJzerman AP, Leff P (1995) Pharmacological and biochemical analysis of FPL 67156, a novel, selective inhibitor of ecto-ATPase. Br J Pharmacol 114:475–481PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Creed KE (1979) The role of the hypogastric nerve in bladder and urethral activity of the dog. Br J Pharmacol 65:367–375PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Creed KE, Callahan SM, Ito Y (1994) Excitatory neurotransmission in the mammalian bladder and the effects of suramin. Br J Urol 74:736–743PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Creed KE, Ishikawa S, Ito Y (1983) Electrical and mechanical activity recorded from rabbit urinary bladder in response to nerve stimulation. J Physiol 338:149–164PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Creed KE, Ito Y, Katsuyama H (1991) Neurotransmission in the urinary bladder of rabbits and guinea pigs. Am J Physiol 261:C271–C277PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Creed KE, Tulloch AG (1978) The effect of pelvic nerve stimulation and some drugs on the urethra and bladder of the dog. Br J Urol 50:398–405PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Cristofaro V, Chaudhury A, Goyal RK, Sullivan MP (2013) Impaired purinergic neurotransmission in myosin-Va deficient mouse bladders. Neurourol Urodyn 21:137Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Cristofaro V, Yalla SV, Sullivan MP (2012) Altered caveolar mediated purinergic signaling in spontaneously hypertensive rats with detrusor overactivity. J Urol 188:1017–1026PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Crowe R, Burnstock G (1985) Perinatal development of adrenergic, cholinergic and non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic nerves and SIF cells in the rabbit urinary bladder. Int J Dev Neurosci 3:89–101Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Crowe R, Burnstock G (1989) A histochemical and immunohistochemical study of the autonomic innervation of the lower urinary tract of the female pig. Is the pig a good model for the human bladder and urethra. J Urol 141:414–422PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Crowe R, Burnstock G, Light JK (1988) Intramural ganglia in the human urethra. J Urol 140:183–187PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Crowe R, Haven AJ, Burnstock G (1986) Intramural neurons of the guinea-pig urinary bladder: histochemical localization of putative neurotransmitters in cultures and newborn animals. J Auton Nerv Syst 15:319–339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Crowe R, Light JK, Chilton CP, Burnstock G (1985) Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)-immunoreactive nerve fibres associated with the striated muscle of the human external urethral sphincter [letter]. Lancet 325:47–48Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Cruz F (2013) Targets for botulinum toxin in the lower urinary tract. Neurourol Urodyn doi: 10.1002/nau.22445
  178. 178.
    Cusack NJ, Hourani SMO (1984) Some pharmacological and biochemical interactions of the enantiomers of adenylyl 5′-(β, γ-methylene)-diphosphonate with the guinea-pig urinary bladder. Br J Pharmacol 82:155–159PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Cusack NJ, Hourani SMO, Loizou GD, Welford LA (1987) Pharmacological effects of isopolar phosphonate analogues of ATP on P2-purinoceptors in guinea-pig taenia coli and urinary bladder. Br J Pharmacol 90:791–795PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Cusack NJ, Hourani SMO, Welford LA (1988) The role of ectonucleotidases in pharmacological responses to nucleotide analogues. In: Paton DM (ed) Adenosine and adenine nucleotides. Taylor & Francis, London, pp 93–100Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Dagnino-Acosto A, Munoz A, Smith CP, Boone T, Somogyi G (2011) Elevated extracellular Ca2+ levels affect the purinergic response in rat bladder smooth muscle. Neurourol Urodyn 30:226–227Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    D'Agostino G, Condino AM, Calvi V, Boschi F, Gioglio L, Barbieri A (2012) Purinergic P2X3 heteroreceptors enhance parasympathetic motor drive in isolated porcine detrusor, a reliable model for development of P2X selective blockers for detrusor hyperactivity. Pharmacol Res 65:129–136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Dahlén SE, Hedqvist P (1980) ATP, β-γ-methylene-ATP, and adenosine inhibit non-cholinergic non-adrenergic transmission in rat urinary bladder. Acta Physiol Scand 109:137–142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Dail WG, Evan AP, Gerritsen GC, Dulin WE (1977) Abnormalities in pelvic visceral nerves. A basis for neurogenic bladder in the diabetic Chinese hamster. Invest Urol 15:161–166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Daly DM, Collins VM, Chapple CR, Grundy D (2011) The afferent system and its role in lower urinary tract dysfunction. Curr Opin Urol 21:268–274PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Daly DM, Collins VM, McKay NG, Sellers DJ, Chapple CR, Grundy D (2012) Botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) attenuates bladder afferent nerve firing and prevents ATP release from the urothelium. Curr Mol Med 12:e374Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Daly D, Nocchi L, Schluter M, McKay N, Keating C, Chapple C, Grundy D (2012) Aged related changes in purinergic signalling, afferent firing and receptor expression in the mouse bladder. Neurourol Urodyn 31:955–833Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Daneshgari F, Liu G, Imrey PB (2006) Time dependent changes in diabetic cystopathy in rats include compensated and decompensated bladder function. J Urol 176:380–386PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Dang K, Bielefeldt K, Gebhart GF (2005) Differential responses of bladder lumbosacral and thoracolumbar dorsal root ganglion neurons to purinergic agonists, protons, and capsaicin. J Neurosci 25:3973–3984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Dang K, Lamb K, Cohen M, Bielefeldt K, Gebhart GF (2008) Cyclophosphamide-induced bladder inflammation sensitizes and enhances P2X receptor function in rat bladder sensory neurons. J Neurophysiol 99:49–59PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Dasgupta J, Elliott RA, Doshani A, Tincello DG (2006) Enhancement of rat bladder contraction by artificial sweeteners via increased extracellular Ca2+ influx. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 217:216–224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Dasgupta J, Tincello DG (2009) Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome: an update. Maturitas 64:212–217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Davidson RA, McCloskey KD (2005) Morphology and localization of interstitial cells in the guinea pig bladder: structural relationships with smooth muscle and neurons. J Urol 173:1385–1390PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    de Groat WC (1975) Nervous control of the urinary bladder of the cat. Brain Res 87:201–211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    de Groat WC (1986) Spinal cord projections and neuropeptides in visceral afferent neurons. In: Cervero F, Morrison JFB (eds) Visceral sensation. Progress in brain reseach, vol 67. Elservier, Amsterdam, pp 165–188Google Scholar
  196. 196.
    de Groat WC (1987) Neuropeptides in pelvic afferent pathways. Experientia 43:801–813PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    de Groat WC (2006) Integrative control of the lower urinary tract: preclinical perspective. Br J Pharmacol 147:S25–S40PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    de Groat WC, Booth AM (1980) Inhibition and facilitation in parasympathetic ganglia of the urinary bladder. Fed Proc 39:2990–2996PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    de Groat WC, Booth AM (1993) Synaptic transmission in pelvic ganglia. In: Maggi C (ed) The autonomic nervous system, vol. 3. Nervous control of the urogenital system. Harwood Academic Publishers, Chur, pp 291–348Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    de Groat WC, Booth AM, Krier J, Milne RJ, Morgan C, Nadelhaft I (1979) Neural control of the urinary bladder and large intestine. In: Brooks CM, Koizumi K, Sato A (eds) Integrative functions of the autonomic nervous system. Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press, Amaterdam, pp 50–67Google Scholar
  201. 201.
    de Groat WC, Booth WC, Yoshimura M (1993) Neurophysiology of micturition and its modification in animal models of human disease. In: Maggi CA (ed) The autonomic nervous system. Volume 3. Nervous control of the urogenital system. Harwood Academic Publishers, Chur, pp 227–290Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    de Groat WC, Kawatani M (1989) Enkephalinergic inhibition in parasympathetic ganglia of the urinary bladder of the cat. J Physiol 413:13–29PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    de Groat WC, Kawatani M (1989) Reorganisation of sympathetic preganglionic connections in cat bladder ganglia following parasympathetic denervation. J Physiol 409:431–449PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    de Groat WC, Kawatani M, Hisamitsu T, Cheng C-L, Ma C-P, Thor K, Steers W, Roppolo JR (1990) Mechanisms underlying the recovery of urinary bladder function following spinal cord injury. J Auton Nerv Syst 30:S71–S77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    de Groat WC, Saum WR (1972) Sympathetic inhibition of the urinary bladder and of pelvic ganglionic transmission in the cat. J Physiol 220:297–314PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    de Groat WC, Saum WR (1976) Synaptic transmission in parasympathetic ganglia in the urinary bladder of the cat. J Physiol 256:137–158Google Scholar
  207. 207.
    de Groat WC, Theobald RJ (1976) Reflex activation of sympathetic pathways to vesical smooth muscle and parasympathetic ganglia by electrical stimulation of vesical afferents. J Physiol 259:223–237PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    De Mey J, Burnstock G, Vanhoutte PM (1979) Modulation of the evoked release of noradrenaline in canine saphenous vein via presynaptic receptors for adenosine but not ATP. Eur J Pharmacol 55:401–405PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    De Sy W, Lacroix E, Leusen I (1974) An analysis of the urinary bladder response to hypogastric nerve stimulation in the cat. Invest Urol 11:508–516PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    De Wachter S (2011) Afferent signaling from the bladder: species differences evident from extracellular recordings of pelvic and hypogastric nerves. Neurourol Urodyn 30:647–652PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Dean DM, Downie JW (1978) Contribution of adrenergic and 'purinergic' neurotransmission to contraction in rabbit detrusor. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 207:431–445PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Dean DM, Downie JW (1978) Interaction of prostaglandins and adenosine 5′-triphosphate in the noncholinergic neurotransmission in rabbit detrusor. Prostaglandins 16:245–251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Dhulipala PD, Wang YX, Kotlikoff MI (1998) The human P2X4 receptor gene is alternatively spliced. Gene 207:259–266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Dokita S, Morgan WR, Wheeler MA, Yoshida M, Latifpour J, Weiss RM (1991) N G-Nitro-l-arginine inhibits non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic relaxation in rabbit urethral smooth muscle. Life Sci 48:2429–2436PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Donoso MV, Salas C, Sepulveda G, Lewin J, Fournier A, Huidobro-Toro JP (1994) Involvement of ETA receptors in the facilitation by endothelin-1 of non-adrenergic non-cholinergic transmission in the rat urinary bladder. Br J Pharmacol 111:473–482PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Downie JW, Larsson C (1981) Prostaglandin involvement in contractions evoked in rabbit detrusor by field stimulation and by adenosine 5′-triphosphate. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 59:253–260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Dunn PM, Blakeley AGH (1988) Suramin: a reversible P 2-purinceptor antagonist in the mouse vas deferens. Br J Pharmacol 93:243–245PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Dunn M, Smith JC, Ardran GM (1974) Prolonged bladder distension as a treatment of urgency and urge incontinence of urine. Br J Urol 46:645–652PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Dunning-Davies BM, Fry CH, Mansour D, Ferguson DR (2013) The regulation of ATP release from the urothelium by adenosine and transepithelial potential. BJU Int 111:505–513PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Dutton JL, Hansen MA, Balcar VJ, Barden JA, Bennett MR (1999) Development of P2X receptor clusters on smooth muscle cells in relation to nerve varicosities in the rat urinary bladder. J Neurocytol 28:4–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Ehlert FJ (2003) Contractile role of M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors in gastrointestinal, airway and urinary bladder smooth muscle. Life Sci 74:355–366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Ehlert FJ, Ahn S, Pak KJ, Park GJ, Sangnil MS, Tran JA, Matsui M (2007) Neuronally released acetylcholine acts on the M2 muscarinic receptor to oppose the relaxant effect of isoproterenol on cholinergic contractions in mouse urinary bladder. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 322:631–637PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Eika B, Salling LN, Loft L, Laurberg S, Lundbeck F (1988) Effect of estrogen on NANC transmission in bladder of mature female rats. Neurourol Urodyn 7:201–203Google Scholar
  224. 224.
    Ekman M, Andersson KE, Arner A (2006) Developmental regulation of nerve and receptor mediated contractions of mammalian urinary bladder smooth muscle. Eur J Pharmacol 532:99–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Ekström J, Elmér M (1980) Compensatory increase of responses to nerve stimulation of the partially denervated rat urinary bladder. Acta Physiol Scand 110:21–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Ekström J, Henningsson AC, Henningsson S, Malmberg L (1984) Hyperplasia and hypertrophia in the denervated and distended rat urinary bladder. Acta Physiol Scand 122:45–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Ekström J, Malmberg L (1984) Development of supersensitivity to methacholine in the rat detrusor following either parasympathetic denervation or decentralization. Acta Physiol Scand 122:175–179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Ekström J, Uvelius B (1981) Length–tension relations of smooth muscle from normal and denervated rat urinary bladders. Acta Physiol Scand 112:443–447PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Ellenberg M (1980) Development of urinary bladder dysfunction in diabetes mellitus. Ann Intern Med 92:321–323PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    El-Mas MM, Elmallah AI, Omar AG, Sharabi F (1999) Dopamine modulates peripheral purinergic neurotransmission through multiple presynaptic receptors: tissue-dependent effects. Pharmacol Res 39:11–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Elneil S, Skepper JN, Kidd EJ, Williamson JG, Ferguson DR (2001) Distribution of P2X1 and P2X3 receptors in the rat and human urinary bladder. Pharmacology 63:120–128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Erickson K, Buffington CA, Kanai AJ, de Groat WC, Bullo A, D'Alatri L, Edwards D, Birder LA (1990) Alterations in nitric oxide (NO) production of NK2 immunoreactivity in urinary bladder from cats with feline interstitial cystitis. Soc Neurosci Abstr 24:1619Google Scholar
  233. 233.
    Evans RJ, Lewis C, Buell G, Valera S, North RA, Surprenant A (1995) Pharmacological characterization of heterologously expressed ATP-gated cation channels (P2x purinoceptors). Mol Pharmacol 48:178–183PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Fabiyi AC, Brading AF (2006) The use of the isolated mouse whole bladder for investigating bladder overactivity. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 319:1386–1394PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Faerman I, Glocer L, Celener D, Jadzinsky M, Fox D, Maler M, Alvarez E (1973) Autonomic nervous system and diabetes. Histological and histochemical study of the autonomic nerve fibers of the urinary bladder in diabetic patients. Diabetes 22:225–237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Ferguson D, Christopher N (1996) Urinary bladder function and drug development. Trends Pharmacol Sci 17:161–165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Ferguson DR, Kennedy I, Burton TJ (1997) ATP is released from rabbit urinary bladder epithelial cells by hydrostatic pressure changes—a possible sensory mechanism? J Physiol 505:503–511PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Flood HD, Downie JW, Awad SA (1988) Influence of filling rates and sympathectomy on bladder compliance in the chloralose-anaesthetised cat. Neurourol Urodyn 7:377–384Google Scholar
  239. 239.
    Ford AP, Cockayne DA (2011) ATP and P2X purinoceptors in urinary tract disorders. Handb Exp Pharmacol 202:485–526Google Scholar
  240. 240.
    Ford AP, Gever JR, Nunn PA, Zhong Y, Cefalu JS, Dillon MP, Cockayne DA (2006) Purinoceptors as therapeutic targets for lower urinary tract dysfunction. Br J Pharmacol 147:S132–S143PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Fowler CJ (2006) Integrated control of lower urinary tract — clinical perspective. Br J Pharmacol 147:S14–S24PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Fowler CJ, Beck RO, Gerrard S, Betts CD, Fowler CG (1994) Intravesical capsaicin for treatment of detrusor hyperreflexia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 57:169–173PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Fowler CJ, Griffiths D, de Groat WC (2008) The neural control of micturition. Nat Rev Neurosci 9:453–466PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Fowler CJ, Jewkes D, McDonald WI, Lynn B, de Groat WC (1992) Intravesical capsaicin for neurogenic bladder dysfunction. Lancet 339:1239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Friedland GW, Perkash I (1983) Neuromuscular dysfunction of the bladder and urethra. Semin Roentgenol 18:255–266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Frimodt-Moller C (1980) Diabetic cystopathy: epidemiology and related disorders. Ann Intern Med 92:318–321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Fry CH, Ikeda Y, Harvey R, Wu C, Sui GP (2004) Control of bladder function by peripheral nerves: avenues for novel drug targets. Urology 63:24–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Fry CH, Meng E, Young JS (2010) The physiological function of lower urinary tract smooth muscle. Auton Neurosci 154:3–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Fry CH, Wu C (2000) Determinants of mechanical activity in detrusor smooth muscle. J Physiol 523:61PGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Fry CH, Young JS, Jabr RI, McCarthy C, Ikeda Y, Kanai AJ (2012) Modulation of spontaneous activity in the overactive bladder: the role of P2Y agonists. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 302:F1447–F1454PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Fuder H, Muscholl E (1995) Heteroreceptor-mediated modulation of noradrenaline and acetylcholine release from peripheral nerves. Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol 126:265–412PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Fuder H, Muth U (1993) ATP and endogenous agonists inhibit evoked [3H]-noradrenaline release in rat iris via A1 and P2y-like purinoceptors. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 348:352–357PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Fujii K (1987) Electrophysiological evidence that adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a cotransmitter with acetylcholine (ACh) in isolated guinea-pig, rabbit and pig urinary bladder. Proc Physiol Soc 394:26PGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Fujii K (1988) Evidence for adenosine triphosphate as an excitatory transmitter in guinea-pig, rabbit and pig urinary bladder. J Physiol 404:39–52PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Fujii K, Foster CD, Brading AF, Parekh AB (1990) Potassium channel blockers and the effects of cromakalim on the smooth muscle of the guinea-pig bladder. Br J Pharmacol 99:779–785PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Fujii R, Oshima N (1986) Control of chromatophore movements in teleost fish. Zool Sci 3:13–47Google Scholar
  257. 257.
    Galloway NT, Gabale DR, Irwin PP (1991) Interstitial cystitis or reflex sympathetic dystrophy of the bladder? Semin Urol 9:148–153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Garcia-Pascual A, Costa G, Garcia-Sacristan A, Andersson K-E (1991) Relaxation of sheep urethral muscle induced by electrical stimulation of nerves: involvement of nitric oxide. Acta Physiol Scand 141:531–539PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Gevaert T, Vriens J, Segal A, Everaerts W, Roskams T, Talavera K, Owsianik G, Liedtke W, Daelemans D, Dewachter I, Van Leuven F, Voets T, De Ridder D, Nilius B (2007) Deletion of the transient receptor potential cation channel TRPV4 impairs murine bladder voiding. J Clin Invest 117:3453–3462PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Gever J, Cockayne DA, Dillon MP, Burnstock G, Ford APDW (2006) Pharmacology of P2X channels. Pflugers Arch 452:513–537PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Ghoneim MA, Fretin JA, Gagnon DJ, Lebel E, Van Lier J, Arsenault A, Susset JG (1976) The influence of vesical distension on the urethral resistance to flow: a possible role for prostaglandins? J Urol 116:739–743PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    Ghoniem GM, Shoukry MS (1991) Atropine resistance phenomenon in human bladders of myelodysplastic children. Neurourol Urodyn 10:304Google Scholar
  263. 263.
    Giglio D, Aronsson P, Eriksson L, Tobin G (2007) In vitro characterization of parasympathetic and sympathetic responses in cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis in the rat. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 100:96–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    Giglio D, Delbro DS, Tobin G (2001) On the functional role of muscarinic M2 receptors in cholinergic and purinergic responses in the rat urinary bladder. Eur J Pharmacol 428:357–364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Gill HS, Wein AJ, Ruggieri MR, Whitmore KE, Levin RM (1989) Functional and biochemical alterations in the rabbit urinary bladder following ileocystoplasty. J Urol 142:860–864PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    Gilpin CJ, Dixon JS, Gilpin SA, Gosling JA (1983) The fine structure of autonomic neurons in the wall of the human urinary bladder. J Anat 137:705–713PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    Girard BM, Wolf-Johnston A, Braas KM, Birder LA, May V, Vizzard MA (2008) PACAP-mediated ATP release from rat urothelium and regulation of PACAP/VIP and receptor mRNA in micturition pathways after cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced cystitis. J Mol Neurosci 36:310–320PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. 268.
    Göcmen C, Giesselman B, de Groat WC (2005) Effect of neocuproine, a copper(i) chelator, on rat bladder function. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 312:1138–1143PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    Gómez-Pinilla PJ, Pozo MJ, Camello PJ (2007) Aging impairs neurogenic contraction in guinea pig urinary bladder: role of oxidative stress and melatonin. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 293:R793–R803PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. 270.
    Gómez-Pinilla PJ, Pozo MJ, Camello PJ (2011) Aging differentially modifies agonist-evoked mouse detrusor contraction and calcium signals. Age (Dordr) 33:81–88Google Scholar
  271. 271.
    Gonçalves RG, Gabrich L, Rosário A Jr, Takiya CM, Ferreira ML, Chiarini LB, Persechini PM, Coutinho-Silva R, Leite M Jr (2006) The role of purinergic P2X7 receptors in the inflammation and fibrosis of unilateral ureteral obstruction in mice. Kidney Int 70:1599–1606PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    Gowing NFC (1960) Pathological changes in the bladder following irradiation. Br J Radiol 33:484–487Google Scholar
  273. 273.
    Grandadam F, Lluel P, Palea S, Martin DJ (1999) Pharmacological and urodynamic changes in rat urinary bladder function after multiple pregnancies. BJU Int 84:861–866PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    Grundy L, Chess-Williams R, Grundy D (2012) Primary mouse urothelial cell response to ATP is mediated by P2X but not TRPV1 receptors. Neurourol Urodyn 31:1021Google Scholar
  275. 275.
    Gu J, Polak JM, Deane A, Cocchia D, Michetti F (1984) Increase of S-100 immunoreactivity in the urinary bladder from patients with multiple sclerosis, an indication of peripheral neuronal lesion. Am J Clin Pathol 82:649–654PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    Gür S, Karahan ST (1997) Effects of adenosine 5′-triphosphate, adenosine and acetylcholine in urinary bladder and colon muscles from streptozotocin diabetic rats. Arzneimittelforschung 47:1226–1229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    Hammer K, Sann H, Pierau F-K (1993) Functional properties of mechanosensitive units from the chicken ureter in vitro. Pflugers Arch 425:353–361PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    Hansen MA, Balcar VJ, Barden JA, Bennett MR (1998) The distribution of single P2X1-receptor clusters on smooth muscle cells in relation to nerve varicosities in the rat urinary bladder. J Neurocytol 27:529–539PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. 279.
    Harrison SC, Ferguson DR, Doyle PT (1990) Effect of bladder outflow obstruction on the innervation of the rabbit urinary bladder. Br J Urol 66:372–379PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. 280.
    Harrison SC, Ferguson DR, Hanley MR (1990) Effect of capsaicin on the rabbit urinary bladder. What is the function of sensory nerves that contain substance P? Br J Urol 66:155–161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. 281.
    Harvey RA, Skennerton DE, Newgreen D, Fry CH (2002) The contractile potency of adenosine triphosphate and ecto-adenosine triphosphatase activity in guinea pig detrusor and detrusor from patients with a stable, unstable or obstructed bladder. J Urol 168:1235–1239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. 282.
    Hashimoto S, Kigoshi S, Muramatsu I (1992) Neurogenic responses of urethra isolated from the dog. Eur J Pharmacol 213:117–123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    Hashimoto S, Kigoshi S, Muramatsu I (1993) Nitric oxide-dependent and -independent neurogenic relaxation of isolated dog urethra. Eur J Pharmacol 231:209–214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. 284.
    Hashimoto M, Kokubun S (1995) Contribution of P2-purinoceptors to neurogenic contraction of rat urinary bladder smooth muscle. Br J Pharmacol 115:636–640PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    Hashitani H, Bramich NJ, Hirst GD (2000) Mechanisms of excitatory neuromuscular transmission in the guinea-pig urinary bladder. J Physiol 524(Pt 2):565–579PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. 286.
    Hashitani H, Edwards FR (1999) Spontaneous and neurally activated depolarizations in smooth muscle cells of the guinea-pig urethra. J Physiol 514:459–470PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. 287.
    Hashitani H, Suzuki H (1995) Electrical and mechanical responses produced by nerve stimulation in detrusor smooth muscle of the guinea-pig. Eur J Pharmacol 284:177–183PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. 288.
    Hawranko AA, Barrick S, Birder S, de Groat WC (1999) Effects of capsaicin and cyclophosphamide on the distension-dependent release of ATP into the lumen of the lower urinary tract and peripheral administration of purinergic agonists on the micturition reflex in the rat. Soc Neurosci Abst 25:1171Google Scholar
  289. 289.
    Hegde SS, Mandel DA, Wilford MR, Briaud S, Ford APDW, Eglen RM (1998) Evidence for purinergic neurotransmission in the urinary bladder of pithed rats. Eur J Pharmacol 349:75–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. 290.
    Henderson VE (1923) The action of atropine on intestine and urinary bladder. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 27:205–211Google Scholar
  291. 291.
    Henning RH (1997) Purinoceptors in neuromuscular transmission. Pharmacol Ther 74:115–128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. 292.
    Heppner TJ, Bonev AD, Nelson MT (2005) Elementary purinergic Ca2+ transients evoked by nerve stimulation in rat urinary bladder smooth muscle. J Physiol 564:201–212PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. 293.
    Hernández M, Barahona MV, Bustamante S, García-Sacristín A, Orensanz LM (1999) A2B adenosine receptors mediate relaxation of the pig intravesical ureter: adenosine modulation of non adrenergic non cholinergic excitatory neurotransmission. Br J Pharmacol 126:969–978PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  294. 294.
    Hernández M, Malone-Lee J, Knight GE, Wildman S, Burnstock G (2009) Role of ATP and related purines in the inhibitory neurotransmission of the pig urinary bladder neck. Br J Pharmacol 157:1463–1473PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  295. 295.
    Hills J, Meldrum LA, Klarskov P, Burnstock G (1984) A novel non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic nerve-mediated relaxation of the pig bladder neck: an examination of possible neurotransmitter candidates. Eur J Pharmacol 99:287–293PubMedGoogle Scholar
  296. 296.
    Hindmarsh JR, Idowu OA, Yeates WK, Zar MA (1977) Pharmacology of electrically evoked contractions of human bladder. Br J Pharmacol 61:115PPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. 297.
    Hisayama T, Shinkai M, Takayanagi I, Toyoda T (1988) Mechanism of action of nicotine in isolated urinary bladder of guinea-pig. Br J Pharmacol 95:465–472PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  298. 298.
    Hogaboom GK, O'Donnell JP, Fedan JS (1980) Purinergic receptors: photoaffinity analog of adenosine triphosphate is a specific adenosine triphosphate antagonist. Science 208:1273–1275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  299. 299.
    Holck MI, Marks BH (1978) Purine nucleoside and nucleotide interactions on normal and subsensitive alpha adrenoreceptor responsiveness in guinea-pig vas deferens. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 205:104–117PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. 300.
    Holm-Bentzen M, Lose G (1987) Pathology and pathogenesis of interstitial cystitis. Urology 29:8–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  301. 301.
    Holt SE, Cooper M, Wyllie JH (1985) Evidence for purinergic transmission in mouse bladder and for modulation of responses to electrical stimulation by 5-hydroxytryptamine. Eur J Pharmacol 116:105–111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  302. 302.
    Holzer P (1991) Capsaicin: cellular targets, mechanisms of action, and selectivity for thin sensory neurons. Pharmacol Rev 43:143–201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. 303.
    Hotta H, Masunaga K, Miyazaki S, Watanabe N, Kasuya Y (2012) A gentle mechanical skin stimulation technique for inhibition of micturition contractions of the urinary bladder. Auton Neurosci 167:12–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  304. 304.
    Hourani SMO (1999) Postnatal development of purinoceptors in rat visceral smooth muscle preparations. Gen Pharmacol 32:3–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. 305.
    Hourani SMO, Chown JA (1989) The effects of some possible inhibitors of ectonucleotidases on the breakdown and pharmacological effects of ATP in the guinea-pig urinary bladder. Gen Pharmacol 20:413–416PubMedGoogle Scholar
  306. 306.
    Hourani SMO, Welford LA, Cusack NJ (1985) l-AMP-PCP, an ATP receptor agonist in guinea-pig bladder, is inactive on taenia coli. Eur J Pharmacol 108:197–200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  307. 307.
    Hoyes AD (1984) Fine structureand response to capsaicin of primary afferent nociceptive axons in the rat and guinea-pig ureter. In: Hamann W, Iggo A (eds) Sensory receptor mechanisms. World Scientific Publ, Singapore, pp 25–34Google Scholar
  308. 308.
    Hoyes AD, Barber P, Martin BG (1975) Comparative ultrastructure of the nerves innervating the muscle of the body of the bladder. Cell Tissue Res 164:133–144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  309. 309.
    Hoyle CH (1994) Non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic control of the urinary bladder. World J Urol 12:233–244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  310. 310.
    Hoyle CHV, Burnstock G (1985) Atropine-resistant excitatory junction potentials in rabbit bladder are blocked by α, β-methylene ATP. Eur J Pharmacol 114:239–240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  311. 311.
    Hoyle CHV, Burnstock G (1993) Postganglionic efferent transmission to the bladder and urethra. In: Maggi C (ed) The autonomic nervous system, vol. 3. Nervous control of the urogenital system. Harwood Academic Publishers, Switzerland, pp 349–383Google Scholar
  312. 312.
    Hoyle CH, Chakrabarti G, Pendleton NP, Andrews PL (1998) Neuromuscular transmission and innervation in the urinary bladder of the insectivore Suncus murinus. J Auton Nerv Syst 69:31–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  313. 313.
    Hoyle CHV, Chapple C, Burnstock G (1989) Isolated human bladder: evidence for an adenine dinucleotide acting on P2X-purinoceptors and for purinergic transmission. Eur J Pharmacol 174:115–118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  314. 314.
    Hoyle CHV, Knight GE, Burnstock G (1990) Suramin antagonizes responses to P2-purinoceptor agonists and purinergic nerve stimulation in the guinea-pig urinary bladder and taenia coli. Br J Pharmacol 99:617–621PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  315. 315.
    Hoyle CHV, Lincoln J, Burnstock G (1994) Neural control of pelvic organs. In: Rushton DN (ed) Handbook of neuro-urology. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 1–54Google Scholar
  316. 316.
    Hoyle CHV, Ralevic V, Lincoln J, Knight GE, Goss-Sampson MA, Milla PJ, Burnstock G (1995) Effects of vitamin E deficiency on autonomic neuroeffector mechanisms in the rat caecum, vas deferens and urinary bladder. J Physiol 487:773–786PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  317. 317.
    Hu ST, Gever J, Nunn PA, Ford AP, Zhu Q-M (2004) Cystometric studies with ATP, PPADS and TNP-ATP in conscious and anaesthetised C57BL/6 mice. J Urol 171:461–462Google Scholar
  318. 318.
    Huddart H, Butler DJ (1986) Field stimulation responses of rat urinary bladder detrusor smooth-muscle. Dependence upon slow calcium channel activity determined by K+ depolarization and calcium antagonists. Gen Pharmacol 17:695–703PubMedGoogle Scholar
  319. 319.
    Hudman D, Elliott RA, Norman RI (2000) Inhibition of the contractile response of the rat detrusor muscle by the β2-adrenoceptor agonist clenbuterol. Eur J Pharmacol 392:79–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  320. 320.
    Husted S, Andersson K-E, Sommer L, Østergaard JR (1980) Anticholinergic and calcium antagonistic effects of terodiline in rabbit urinary bladder. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol 46(Suppl 1):20–30Google Scholar
  321. 321.
    Husted S, Sjögren C, Andersson K-E (1980) Mechanisms of the responses to non-cholinergic, non-adrenergic nerve stimulation and to ATP in isolated rabbit urinary bladder: evidence for ADP evoked prostaglandin release. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol 47:84–92Google Scholar
  322. 322.
    Husted S, Sjögren C, Andersson K-E (1980) Role of prostaglandins in the responses of rabbit detrusor to non-cholinergic, non-adrenergic nerve stimulation and to ATP. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 246:84–97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  323. 323.
    Husted S, Sjögren C, Andersson K-E (1983) Direct effects of adenosine and adenine nucleotides on isolated human urinary bladder and their influence on electrically induced contractions. J Urol 130:392–398PubMedGoogle Scholar
  324. 324.
    Hutton KA, Trejdosiewicz LK, Thomas DF, Southgate J (1993) Urothelial tissue culture for bladder reconstruction: an experimental study. J Urol 150:721–725PubMedGoogle Scholar
  325. 325.
    Iacovou JW, Hill SJ, Birmingham AT (1990) Agonist-induced contraction and accumulation of inositol phosphates in the guinea-pig detrusor: evidence that muscarinic and purinergic receptors raise intracellular calcium by different mechanisms. J Urol 144:775–779PubMedGoogle Scholar
  326. 326.
    Igawa Y, Mattiasson A, Andersson K-E (1993) Functional importance of cholinergic and purinergic neurotransmission for micturition contraction in the normal, unanaesthetized rat. Br J Pharmacol 109:473–479PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  327. 327.
    Igawa Y, Mattiasson A, Andersson K-E (1994) Micturition and premicturition contractions in unanesthetized rats with bladder outlet obstruction. J Urol 151:244–249PubMedGoogle Scholar
  328. 328.
    Igawa Y, Zhang X, Nishizawa O, Umeda M, Iwata A, Taketo MM, Manabe T, Matsui M, Andersson KE (2004) Cystometric findings in mice lacking muscarinic M2 or M3 receptors. J Urol 172:2460–2464PubMedGoogle Scholar
  329. 329.
    Ikeda Y, Zabbarova IV, Birder LA, de Groat WC, McCarthy CJ, Hanna-Mitchell AT, Kanai AJ (2012) Botulinum neurotoxin serotype A suppresses neurotransmitter release from afferent as well as efferent nerves in the urinary bladder. Eur Urol 62:1157–1164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  330. 330.
    Imagawa J, Akima M, Sakai K (1989) Functional evaluation of sympathetically mediated responses in in vivo lower urinary tract of dogs. J Pharmacol Methods 22:103–111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  331. 331.
    Imamura T, Ishizuka O, Aizawa N, Zhong C, Ogawa T, Nakayama T, Tanabe T, Nishizawa O (2008) Gosha-jinki-gan reduces transmitter proteins and sensory receptors associated with C fiber activation induced by acetic acid in rat urinary bladder. Neurourol Urodyn 27:832–837PubMedGoogle Scholar
  332. 332.
    Inoue R, Brading AF (1990) The properties of the ATP-induced depolarization and current in single cells isolated from the guinea-pig urinary bladder. Br J Pharmacol 100:619–625PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  333. 333.
    Inoue R, Brading AF (1991) Human, pig and guinea-pig bladder smooth muscle cells generate similar inward currents in response to purinoceptor activation. Br J Pharmacol 103:1840–1841PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  334. 334.
    Iosif CS, Batra S, Ek A, Astedt B (1981) Estrogen receptors in the human female lower uninary tract. Am J Obstet Gynecol 141:817–820PubMedGoogle Scholar
  335. 335.
    Iravani MM, Luheshi GN, Zar MA (1988) Inhibition of non-cholinergic motor transmission in isolated rat bladder by nifedipine. J Physiol 410:61PGoogle Scholar
  336. 336.
    Iravani MM, Zar MA (1994) Neuropeptide Y in rat detrusor and its effect on nerve-mediated and acetylcholine-evoked contractions. Br J Pharmacol 113:95–102PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  337. 337.
    Ishihama H, Momota Y, Yanase H, Wang X, de Groat WC, Kawatani M (2006) Activation of α1D adrenergic receptors in the rat urothelium facilitates the micturition reflex. J Urol 175:358–364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  338. 338.
    Ito Y, Kimoto Y (1985) The neural and non-neural mechanisms involved in urethral activity in rabbits. J Physiol 367:57–72PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  339. 339.
    James MJ, Birmingham AT, Hill SJ (1993) Partial mediation by nitric oxide of the relaxation of human isolated detrusor strips in response to electrical field stimulation. Br J Clin Pharmacol 35:366–372PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  340. 340.
    Jancsó G, Maggi CA (1987) Distribution of capsaicin-sensitive urinary bladder afferents in the rat spinal cord. Brain Res 418:371–376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  341. 341.
    Jänig W, Morrison JFB (1986) Functional properties of spinal visceral afferents supplying abdominal and pelvic organs, with special emphasis on visceral nociception. In: Cervero F, Morrison JFB (eds) Visceral sensation, progress in brain reseach, vol 67. Elservier Science B.V, Amsterdam, pp 87–114Google Scholar
  342. 342.
    Jenes Á, Ruzsnavszky F, Telek A, Szigeti GP, Csernoch L (2012) A possible role of the cholinergic and purinergic receptor interaction in the regulation of the rat urinary bladder function. J Muscle Res Cell Motil 32:421–431PubMedGoogle Scholar
  343. 343.
    Ji G, Feldman ME, Deng KY, Greene KS, Wilson J, Lee JC, Johnston RC, Rishniw M, Tallini Y, Zhang J, Wier WG, Blaustein MP, Xin HB, Nakai J, Kotlikoff MI (2004) Ca2+-sensing transgenic mice: postsynaptic signaling in smooth muscle. J Biol Chem 279:21461–21468PubMedGoogle Scholar
  344. 344.
    Jiang CH, Lindström S (1999) Prolonged enhancement of the micturition reflex in the cat by repetitive stimulation of bladder afferents. J Physiol 517:599–605PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  345. 345.
    Johns A (1981) The effect of indomethacin and substance P on the guinea pig urinary bladder. Life Sci 29:1803–1809PubMedGoogle Scholar
  346. 346.
    Johns A, Paton DM (1977) Effect of indomethacin on atropine-resistant transmission in rabbit and monkey urinary bladder: evidence for involvement of prostaglandins in transmission. Prostaglandins 13:245–254PubMedGoogle Scholar
  347. 347.
    Johnson RH, Eisenhofer G, Lambie DG (1986) The effects of acute and chronic ingestion of ethanol on the autonomic nervous system. Drug Alcohol Depend 18:319–328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  348. 348.
    Jörgensen L, Mortensen SO, Colstrup H, Andersen JT (1985) Bladder distension in the management of detrusor instability. Scand J Urol Nephrol 19:101–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  349. 349.
    Juszczak K, Ziomber A, Wyczolkówski M, Thor PJ (2010) Hyperosmolarity alters micturition: a comparison of urinary bladder motor activity in hyperosmolar and cyclophosphamide-induced models of overactive bladder. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 88:899–906PubMedGoogle Scholar
  350. 350.
    Kaan TK, Yip PK, Grist J, Cefalu JS, Nunn PA, Ford AP, Zhong Y, McMahon SB (2010) Endogenous purinergic control of bladder activity via presynaptic P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors in the spinal cord. J Neurosci 30:4503–4507PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  351. 351.
    Kadima S, Hollywood MA, Thornbury KD, McHale NG, Sergeant GP (2010) Regulation of urethral tone by ATP. Irish J Med Sci 179:S286–S287Google Scholar
  352. 352.
    Kageyama A, Fujino T, Taki Y, Kato Y, Nozawa Y, Ito Y, Yamada S (2008) Alteration of muscarinic and purinergic receptors in urinary bladder of rats with cyclophosphamide-induced interstitial cystitis. Neurosci Lett 436:81–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  353. 353.
    Kageyama S, Fujita K, Suzuki K, Shinbo H, Masuda N, Uchida W (2000) Effect of age on the responses of rat bladder detrusor strips to adenosine triphosphate. BJU Int 85:899–904PubMedGoogle Scholar
  354. 354.
    Kang SH, Chess-Williams R, Anoopkumar-Dukie S, McDermott C (2013) Induction of inflammatory cytokines and alteration of urothelial ATP, acetylcholine and prostaglandin E2 release by doxorubicin. Eur J Pharmacol 700:102–109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  355. 355.
    Karsenty G, Elzayat E, Delapparent T, St-Denis B, Lemieux MC, Corcos J (2007) Botulinum toxin type A injections into the trigone to treat idiopathic overactive bladder do not induce vesicoureteral reflux. J Urol 177:1011–1014PubMedGoogle Scholar
  356. 356.
    Kasakov L, Burnstock G (1983) The use of the slowly degradable analog, α, β-methylene ATP, to produce desensitisation of the P2-purinoceptor: effect on non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic responses of the guinea-pig urinary bladder. Eur J Pharmacol 86:291–294Google Scholar
  357. 357.
    Kasakov LN, Vlaskovska MV (1985) Profile of prostaglandins generated in the detrusor muscle of rat urinary bladder: effects of adenosine triphosphate and adenosine. Eur J Pharmacol 113:431–436PubMedGoogle Scholar
  358. 358.
    Katsuragi T, Kuratomi L, Furukawa T (1986) Clonidine-evoked selective P1-purinoceptor antagonism of contraction of guinea-pig urinary bladder. Eur J Pharmacol 121:119–122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  359. 359.
    Katsuragi T, Usune S, Furukawa T (1990) Antagonism by nifedipine of contraction and Ca2+-influx evoked by ATP in guinea-pig urinary bladder. Br J Pharmacol 100:370–374PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  360. 360.
    Keast JR, de Groat WC (1989) Immunohistochemical characterization of pelvic neurons which project to the bladder, colon, or penis in rats. J Comp Neurol 288:387–400PubMedGoogle Scholar
  361. 361.
    Keast JR, Kawatani M, de Groat WC (1990) Sympathetic modulation of cholinergic transmission in cat vesical ganglia is mediated by α1- and α2-adrenoceptors. Am J Physiol 258:R44–R50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  362. 362.
    Keating MA, Duckett JW, Snyder HM, Wein AJ, Potter L, Levin RM (1990) Ontogeny of bladder function in the rabbit. J Urol 144:766–769PubMedGoogle Scholar
  363. 363.
    Kelley SP, Birch R, Scott-Ward TS, Peppiatt-Wildman CM, Farmer C, Delaney M, Wildman SS (2013) Urinary ATP and bacteria in shed urothelial cells as a superior diagnostic marker for urinary tract infection in renal transplant recipients. FASEB J 27:646.9Google Scholar
  364. 364.
    Kerr DIB, Krantis A (1979) A new class of ATP antagonist. Proc Australian Phys Pharmacol Soc 10:156PGoogle Scholar
  365. 365.
    Khan MA, Mumtaz FH, Morgan RJ (2000) Does the temperature of lignocaine hydrochloride gel affect instillation discomfort in the male urethra? BJU Int 86:404–405PubMedGoogle Scholar
  366. 366.
    Khandelwal P, Abraham SN, Apodaca G (2009) Cell biology and physiology of the uroepithelium. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 297:F1477–F1501PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  367. 367.
    Khattab MM, Al-Hrasen MN (2006) Contractile activity of ATP and diadenosine tetraphosphate on urinary bladder in the rats: role of superoxide anion and urothelium. Auton Autacoid Pharmacol 26:149–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  368. 368.
    Khera M, Somogyi GT, Kiss S, Boone TB, Smith CP (2004) Botulinum toxin A inhibits ATP release from bladder urothelium after chronic spinal cord injury. Neurochem Int 45:987–993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  369. 369.
    Kihara K, de Groat WC (1997) Sympathetic efferent pathways projecting to the bladder neck and proximal urethra in the rat. J Auton Nerv Syst 62:134–142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  370. 370.
    Kim DY, Hawranko AA, Fraser MO, Yoshiyama M, Chancellor MB, Cheng CL, de Groat WC (1999) The effects of spinal and peripheral administration of purinergic agonists on the micturition reflex in the rat. Soc Neurosci Abstr 25:1170Google Scholar
  371. 371.
    Kinder RB, Mundy AR (1985) Atropine blockade of nerve-mediated stimulation of the human detrusor. Br J Urol 57:418–421PubMedGoogle Scholar
  372. 372.
    King JA, Huddart H, Staff WG (1997) Purinergic modulation of rat urinary bladder detrusor smooth muscle. Gen Pharmacol 29:597–604PubMedGoogle Scholar
  373. 373.
    King BF, Knowles I, Burnstock G, Ramage A (2004) Investigation of the effects of P2 purinoceptor ligands on the micturition reflex in female urethane-anaesthetised rats. Br J Pharmacol 142:519–530PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  374. 374.
    Kishii K, Hisayama T, Takayanagi I (1992) Comparison of contractile mechanisms by carbachol and ATP in detrusor strips of rabbit urinary bladder. Jpn J Pharmacol 58:219–229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  375. 375.
    Kitta T, Chancellor MB, de Groat WC, Kuno S, Nonomura K, Yoshimura N (2012) Suppression of bladder overactivity by adenosine A2A receptor antagonist in a rat model of Parkinson disease. J Urol 187:1890–1897PubMedGoogle Scholar
  376. 376.
    Kitta T, Mitsui T, Kanno Y, Moriya K, Nonomura K, Yoshimura N (2013) Interaction between adenosine A2A receptors and dopaminergic receptors in the central nervous system (CNS) control of micturition reflex. J Urol 189:e702Google Scholar
  377. 377.
    Klarskov P (1987) Non-cholinergic, non-adrenergic nerve-mediated relaxation of pig and human detrusor muscle in vitro. Br J Urol 59:414–419PubMedGoogle Scholar
  378. 378.
    Klarskov P (1987) Non-cholinergic, non-adrenergic inhibitory nerve responses of bladder outlet smooth muscle in vitro. Br J Urol 60:337–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  379. 379.
    Knight GE, Bodin P, de Groat WC, Burnstock G (2002) ATP is released from guinea pig ureter epithelium on distension. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 282:F281–F288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  380. 380.
    Knight GE, Brizzolara AL, Soediono P, Karoon P, Burnstock G (1995) Chronic ethanol consumption affects cholinoceptor- and purinoceptor-mediated contractions of the isolated rat bladder. Alcohol 12:183–188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  381. 381.
    Koley B, Koley J, Saha JK (1984) The effects of nicotine on spontaneous contractions of cat urinary bladder in situ. Br J Pharmacol 83:347–355PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  382. 382.
    Kolta MG, Wallace LJ, Gerald MC (1985) Streptozocin-induced diabetes affects rat urinary bladder response to autonomic agents. Diabetes 34:917–921PubMedGoogle Scholar
  383. 383.
    Koziol JA, Clark DC, Gittes RF, Tan EM (1993) The natural history of interstitial cystitis: a survey of 374 patients. J Urol 149:465–469PubMedGoogle Scholar
  384. 384.
    Krell RD, McCoy JL, Ridley PT (1981) Pharmacological characterization of the excitatory innervation to the guinea-pig urinary bladder in vitro: evidence for both cholinergic and non-adrenergic–non-cholinergic neurotransmission. Br J Pharmacol 74:15–22PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  385. 385.
    Kropp BP (1998) Small-intestinal submucosa for bladder augmentation: a review of preclinical studies. World J Urol 16:262–267PubMedGoogle Scholar
  386. 386.
    Kropp BP, Eppley BL, Prevel CD, Rippy MK, Harruff RC, Badylak SF, Adams MC, Rink RC, Keating MA (1995) Experimental assessment of small intestinal submucosa as a bladder wall substitute. Urology 46:396–400PubMedGoogle Scholar
  387. 387.
    Kruse MN, Belton AL, de Groat WC (1993) Changes in bladder and external urethral sphincter function after spinal cord injury in the rat. Am J Physiol 264:R1157–R1163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  388. 388.
    Kruse R, Säve S, Persson K (2012) Adenosine triphosphate induced P2Y2 receptor activation induces proinflammatory cytokine release in uroepithelial cells. J Urol 188:2419–2425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  389. 389.
    Kubota Y, Hashitani H, Shirasawa N, Kojima Y, Sasaki S, Mabuchi Y, Soji T, Suzuki H, Kohri K (2008) Altered distribution of interstitial cells in the guinea pig bladder following bladder outlet obstruction. Neurourol Urodyn 27:330–340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  390. 390.
    Kudlacz EM, Chun AL, Skau KA, Gerald MC, Wallace LJ (1988) Diabetes and diuretic-induced alterations in function of rat urinary bladder. Diabetes 37:949–955PubMedGoogle Scholar
  391. 391.
    Kudlacz EM, Gerald MC, Wallace LJ (1989) Sensory nerves and urinary bladder function: effects of diabetes, capsaicin and acrylamide treatment. Gen Pharmacol 20:31–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  392. 392.
    Kullmann FA, Artim D, Beckel J, Barrick S, de Groat WC, Birder LA (2008) Heterogeneity of muscarinic receptor-mediated Ca2+ responses in cultured urothelial cells from rat. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 294:F971–F981PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  393. 393.
    Kullmann FA, Artim DE, Birder LA, de Groat WC (2008) Activation of muscarinic receptors in rat bladder sensory pathways alters reflex bladder activity. J Neurosci 28:1977–1987PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  394. 394.
    Kullmann FA, Shah MA, Birder LA, de Groat WC (2009) Functional TRP and ASIC-like channels in cultured urothelial cells from the rat. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 296:F892–F901PubMedGoogle Scholar
  395. 395.
    Kumar V, Chapple CC, Chess-Williams R (2004) Characteristics of adenosine triphosphate release from porcine and human normal bladder. J Urol 172:744–747PubMedGoogle Scholar
  396. 396.
    Kumar V, Chapple CR, Rosario D, Tophill PR, Chess-Williams R (2010) In vitro release of adenosine triphosphate from the urothelium of human bladders with detrusor overactivity, both neurogenic and idiopathic. Eur Urol 57:1087–1092PubMedGoogle Scholar
  397. 397.
    Kumar V, Chapple CR, Surprenant AM, Chess-Williams R (2007) Enhanced adenosine triphosphate release from the urothelium of patients with painful bladder syndrome: a possible pathophysiological explanation. J Urol 178:1533–1536PubMedGoogle Scholar
  398. 398.
    Kumar V, Cross RL, Chess-Williams R, Chapple CR (2005) Recent advances in basic science for overactive bladder. Curr Opin Urol 15:222–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  399. 399.
    Kuo DC, Hisamitsu T, de Groat WC (1983) The function of efferent projections from the lumbosacral sympathetic chain to the urinary bladder in the cat. Soc Neurosci Abstr 9:610Google Scholar
  400. 400.
    Kuo DC, Hisamitsu T, de Groat WC (1984) A sympathetic projection from sacral paravertebral ganglia to the pelvic nerve and to postganglionic nerves on the surface of the urinary bladder and large intestine of the cat. J Comp Neurol 226:76–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  401. 401.
    Kura H, Obara K, Yabu H (1992) Contractile responses to electrical field stimulation and ATP in guinea-pig urinary bladder. Comp Biochem Physiol C 102:193–197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  402. 402.
    Labadia A, Rivera L, Costa G, Garcia-Sacristan A (1988) Influence of the autonomic nervous system in the horse urinary bladder. Res Vet Sci 44:282–285PubMedGoogle Scholar
  403. 403.
    Lai HH, Munoz A, Smith CP, Boone TB, Somogyi GT (2011) Plasticity of non-adrenergic non-cholinergic bladder contractions in rats after chronic spinal cord injury. Brain Res Bull 86:91–96PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  404. 404.
    Laird JM, Roza C, Cervero F (1996) Spinal dorsal horn neurons responding to noxious distension of the ureter in anesthetized rats. J Neurophysiol 76:3239–3248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  405. 405.
    Lambrecht G, Friebe T, Grimm U, Windscheif U, Bungardt E, Hildebrandt C, Bäumert HG, Spatz-Kümbel G, Mutschler E (1992) PPADS, a novel functionally selective antagonist of P2 purinoceptor-mediated responses. Eur J Pharmacol 217:217–219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  406. 406.
    Langley KN, Anderson HK (1895) The innervation of the pelvic and adjoining viscera: Part II. The bladder. J Physiol 19:71–84PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  407. 407.
    Lantéri-Minet M, Bon K, de Pommery J, Michiels JF, Menétrey D (1995) Cyclophosphamide cystitis as a model of visceral pain in rats: model elaboration and spinal structures involved as revealed by the expression of c-Fos and Krox-24 proteins. Exp Brain Res 105:220–232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  408. 408.
    Latini JM, Giannantoni A (2011) Pharmacotherapy of overactive bladder: epidemiology and pathophysiology of overactive bladder. Expert Opin Pharmacother 12:1017–1027PubMedGoogle Scholar
  409. 409.
    Lavelle JP, Meyers SA, Ruiz WG, Buffington CA, Zeidel ML, Apodaca G (2000) Urothelial pathophysiological changes in feline interstitial cystitis: a human model. Am J Physiol 278:F540–F553Google Scholar
  410. 410.
    Lawrence GW, Aoki KR, Dolly JO (2010) Excitatory cholinergic and purinergic signaling in bladder are equally susceptible to botulinum neurotoxin a consistent with co-release of transmitters from efferent fibers. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 334:1080–1086PubMedGoogle Scholar
  411. 411.
    Lazzeri M (2006) The physiological function of the urothelium — more than a simple barrier. Urol Int 76:289–295PubMedGoogle Scholar
  412. 412.
    Lee H-Y, Bardini M, Burnstock G (2000) Distribution of P2X receptors in the urinary bladder and ureter of the rat. J Urol 163:2002–2007PubMedGoogle Scholar
  413. 413.
    Lee WC, Chiang PH, Tain YL, Wu CC, Chuang YC (2012) Sensory dysfunction of bladder mucosa and bladder oversensitivity in a rat model of metabolic syndrome. PLoS One 7:e45578PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  414. 414.
    Lee JG, Wein AJ, Levin RM (1994) Comparative pharmacology of the male and female rabbit bladder neck and urethra: involvement of nitric oxide. Pharmacology 48:250–259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  415. 415.
    Levin RM, Brendler K, Wein AJ (1983) Comparative pharmacological response of an in vitro whole bladder preparation (rabbit) with response of isolated smooth muscle strips. J Urol 130:377–381PubMedGoogle Scholar
  416. 416.
    Levin RM, Jacoby R, Wein AJ (1983) High-affinity, divalent ion-specific binding of 3H-ATP to homogenate derived from rabbit urinary bladder. Comparison with divalent-ion ATPase activity. Mol Pharmacol 23:1–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  417. 417.
    Levin RM, Longhurst PA, Kato K, McGuire EJ, Elbadawi A, Wein AJ (1990) Comparative physiology and pharmacology of the cat and rabbit urinary bladder. J Urol 143:848–852PubMedGoogle Scholar
  418. 418.
    Levin RM, Malkowicz SB, Jacobowitz D, Wein AJ (1981) The ontogeny of the autonomic innervation and contractile response of the rabbit urinary bladder. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 219:250–257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  419. 419.
    Levin RM, Ruggieri MR, Velagapudi S, Gordon D, Altman B, Wein AJ (1986) Relevance of spontaneous activity to urinary bladder function: an in vitro and in vivo study. J Urol 136:517–521PubMedGoogle Scholar
  420. 420.
    Levin RM, Ruggieri MR, Wein AJ (1986) Functional effects of the purinergic innervation of the rabbit urinary bladder. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 236:452–457PubMedGoogle Scholar
  421. 421.
    Levin RM, Shofer FS, Wein AJ (1980) Estrogen-induced alterations in the autonomic responses of the rabbit urinary bladder. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 215:614–618PubMedGoogle Scholar
  422. 422.
    Levin RM, Tong Y-C, Wein AJ (1991) Effect of pregnancy on the autonomic response of the rabbit urinary bladder. Neurourol Urodyn 10:313Google Scholar
  423. 423.
    Levin RM, Wein AJ (1982) Response of the in vitro whole bladder (rabbit) preparation to autonomic agonists. J Urol 128:1087–1090PubMedGoogle Scholar
  424. 424.
    Levin RM, Zderic SA, Ewalt DH, Duckett JW, Wein AJ (1991) Effects of pregnancy on muscarinic receptor density and function in the rabbit urinary bladder. Pharmacology 43:69–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  425. 425.
    Lewis SA, Lewis JR (2006) Kinetics of urothelial ATP release. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 291:F332–F340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  426. 426.
    Li C, Peoples RW, Weight FF (1998) Ethanol-induced inhibition of a neuronal P2X purinoceptor by an allosteric mechanism. Br J Pharmacol 123:1–3PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  427. 427.
    Li Y, Xue L, Miao Q, Mao F, Yao L, Yuan J, Qin W, Zhao Y, Sun H, Liu F, Wang H (2013) Expression and electrophysiological characteristics of P2X3 receptors in interstitial cells of Cajal in rats with partial bladder outlet obstruction. BJU Int 111:843–851PubMedGoogle Scholar
  428. 428.
    Li JH, Yasay GD, Kau ST, Ohnmacht CJ, Trainor DA, Bonev AD, Heppner TJ, Nelson MT (1996) Studies of the KATP channel opening activity of the new dihydropyridine compound 9-(3-cyanophenyl)-3,4,6,7,9,10-hexahydro-1,8-(2H,5H)-acridinedione in bladder detrusor in vitro. Arzneimittelforschung 46:525–530PubMedGoogle Scholar
  429. 429.
    Lin MJ, Liu S-H, Lin-Shiau S-Y (1998) Phorbol ester-induced contractions of mouse detrusor muscle are inhibited by nifedipine. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 357:553–557PubMedGoogle Scholar
  430. 430.
    Lincoln J, Burnstock G (1993) Autonomic innervation of the urinary bladder and urethra. In: Maggi C (ed) The autonomic nervous system, vol. 3. Nervous control of the urogenital system. Harwood Academic Publishers, Chur, pp 33–68Google Scholar
  431. 431.
    Lincoln J, Crockett M, Haven AJ, Burnstock G (1984) Rat bladder in the early stages of streptozotocin-induced diabetes: adrenergic and cholinergic innervation. Diabetologia 26:81–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  432. 432.
    Lincoln J, Haven AJ, Sawyer M, Burnstock G (1984) The smooth muscle of rat bladder in the early stages of streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Br J Urol 56:24–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  433. 433.
    Liu G, Daneshgari F (2005) Alterations in neurogenically mediated contractile responses of urinary bladder in rats with diabetes. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 288:F1220–F1226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  434. 434.
    Liu H, Jiang Y, Kuo H (2013) Increased suburothelial nerve fiber and purinergic P2X3 receptor expressions in patients with idiopathic detrusor overactivity and their relationship with botulinum toxin A therapeutic outcome. Neurourol Urodyn 32:733–735Google Scholar
  435. 435.
    Liu G, Li M, Daneshgari F (2008) Temporal expression of muscarinic and purinergic receptors in diabetic rat bladder. Neurourol Urodyn 27:594–595Google Scholar
  436. 436.
    Liu S-H, Lin-Shiau S-Y (1996) The effects of uranyl ions on neuromuscular transmission in the urinary bladder of the normal and streptozotocin-diabetic mouse. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 354:773–778PubMedGoogle Scholar
  437. 437.
    Liu SH, Lin-Shiau SY (2000) Protein kinase C regulates purinergic component of neurogenic contractions in mouse bladder. J Urol 164:1764–1767PubMedGoogle Scholar
  438. 438.
    Liu F, Takahashi N, Yamaguchi O (2009) Expression of P2X3 purinoceptors in suburothelial myofibroblasts of the normal human urinary bladder. Int J Urol 16:570–575PubMedGoogle Scholar
  439. 439.
    Liu M, Xu YF, Feng Y, Yang FQ, Luo J, Zhai W, Che JP, Wang GC, Zheng JH (2013) Epigallocatechin gallate attenuates interstitial cystitis in human bladder urothelium cells by modulating purinergic receptors. J Surg Res 183:397–404PubMedGoogle Scholar
  440. 440.
    Lluel P, Barras M, Palea S (2002) Cholinergic and purinergic contribution to the micturition reflex in conscious rats with long-term bladder outlet obstruction. Neurourol Urodyn 21:142–153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  441. 441.
    Longhurst PA, Belis JA (1986) Abnormalities of rat bladder contractility in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 238:773–777PubMedGoogle Scholar
  442. 442.
    Longhurst PA, Belis JA, O'Donnell JP, Galie JR, Westfall DP (1984) A study of the atropine-resistant component of the neurogenic response of the rabbit urinary bladder. Eur J Pharmacol 99:295–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  443. 443.
    Longhurst PA, Brotcke TP, Leggett RE, Levin RM (1992) The influence of streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus on the sensitivity of rat urinary bladder body and base strips to changes in extracellular calcium. Gen Pharmacol 23:83–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  444. 444.
    Longhurst PA, Kang J, Wein AJ, Levin RM (1990) The influence of intravesical volume upon contractile responses of the whole bladder preparation from streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Gen Pharmacol 21:687–692PubMedGoogle Scholar
  445. 445.
    Luheshi G, Zar A (1990) Purinoceptor desensitization impairs but does not abolish the non-cholinergic motor transmission in rat isolated urinary bladder. Eur J Pharmacol 185:203–208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  446. 446.
    Luheshi GN, Zar MA (1990) Presence of non-cholinergic motor transmission in human isolated bladder. J Pharm Pharmacol 42:223–224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  447. 447.
    Luheshi GN, Zar MA (1990) Inhibitory effect of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on non-cholinergic motor transmission in rat detrusor and its prevention by sorbinil. Br J Pharmacol 101:411–417PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  448. 448.
    Luheshi GN, Zar MA (1991) The effect of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on cholinergic motor transmission in the rat urinary bladder. Br J Pharmacol 103:1657–1662PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  449. 449.
    Lukacsko P, Krell RD (1981) The effects of nucleotides on the response of the isolated guinea pig urinary bladder to nonadrenergic, noncholinergic nerve stimulation. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 59:1199–1201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  450. 450.
    Lukacsko P, Krell RD (1982) Response of the guinea-pig urinary bladder to purine and pyrimidine nucleotides. Eur J Pharmacol 80:401–406PubMedGoogle Scholar
  451. 451.
    Lundin A, Hallander H, Kallner A, Lundin UK, Österberg E (1989) Bacteriuria testing by the ATP method as an integral part in the diagnosis and therapy of urinary tract infection (UTI). J Biolumin Chemilumin 4:381–389PubMedGoogle Scholar
  452. 452.
    Ma L, Feugang JM, Konarski P, Wang J, Lu J, Fu S, Ma B, Tian B, Zou C, Wang Z (2006) Growth inhibitory effects of quercetin on bladder cancer cell. Front Biosci 11:2275–2285PubMedGoogle Scholar
  453. 453.
    MacDermott AB, Role LW, Siegelbaum SA (1999) Presynaptic ionotropic receptors and the control of transmitter release. Annu Rev Neurosci 22:443–485PubMedGoogle Scholar
  454. 454.
    Mackenzie I, Burnstock G (1984) Neuropeptide action on the guinea-pig bladder; a comparison with the effects of field stimulation and ATP. Eur J Pharmacol 105:85–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  455. 455.
    Mackenzie I, Burnstock G, Dolly JO (1982) The effects of purified botulinum neurotoxin type A on cholinergic, adrenergic and non-adrenergic, atropine-resistant autonomic neuromuscular transmission. Neuroscience 7:997–1006PubMedGoogle Scholar
  456. 456.
    Maggi CA (1991) Omega conotoxin and prejunctional modulation of the biphasic response of the rat isolated urinary bladder to single pulse electrical field stimulation. J Auton Pharmacol 11:295–304PubMedGoogle Scholar
  457. 457.
    Maggi CA (1993) The dual sensory and efferent function of capsaicin-sensitive primary sensory nerves in the bladder and urethra. In: Maggi C (ed) The autonomic nervous system, vol. 3. Nervous control of the urogenital system. Harwood Academic Publishers, Chur, pp 383–422Google Scholar
  458. 458.
    Maggi CA, Conte B, Furio M, Santicioli P, Giuliani S, Meli A (1989) Further studies on mechanisms regulating the voiding cycle of the rat urinary bladder. Gen Pharmacol 20:833–838PubMedGoogle Scholar
  459. 459.
    Maggi CA, Grimaldi G, Meli A (1982) The effects of nifedipine and verapamil on spontaneous and carbachol-stimulated contractions of rat urinary bladder "in vivo". Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 257:288–294PubMedGoogle Scholar
  460. 460.
    Maggi CA, Manzini S, Parlani M, Conte B, Giuliani S, Meli A (1988) The effect of nifedipine on spontaneous, drug-induced and reflexly-activated contractions of the rat urinary bladder: evidence for the participation of an intracellular calcium store to micturition contraction. Gen Pharmacol 19:73–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  461. 461.
    Maggi CA, Santicioli P, Manzini S, Conti S, Giuliani S, Patacchini R, Meli A (1989) Functional studies on the cholinergic and sympathetic innervation of the rat proximal urethra: effect of pelvic ganglionectomy or experimental diabetes. J Auton Pharmacol 9:231–241PubMedGoogle Scholar
  462. 462.
    Maggi CA, Santicioli P, Meli A (1984) Postnatal development of myogenic contractile activity and excitatory innervation of rat urinary bladder. Am J Physiol 247:R972–R978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  463. 463.
    Maggi CA, Santicioli P, Meli A (1985) Pharmacological evidence for the existence of two components in the twitch response to field stimulation of detrusor strips from the rat urinary bladder. J Auton Pharmacol 5:221–229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  464. 464.
    Mansfield K, Cheng Y, Moore K (2012) Treatment of urothelial cells with lipopolysaccharide from enteropathogenic E. coli reduces stretch induced ATP release. J Urol 187:e368Google Scholar
  465. 465.
    Marchenko SM, Volkova TM, Fedorov OI (1987) ATP-activated ion conductance in isolated smooth muscle cells of the urinary bladder of the guinea pig. Neirofiziologiia 19:95–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  466. 466.
    Marti-Cabrera M, Llopis P, Abengochea A, Ortiz JL, Climent VJ, Cortijo J, Morcillo EJ (1994) Effects of Ca2+ channel antagonists and benzodiazepine receptor ligands in normal and skinned rat urinary bladder. Eur J Pharmacol 255:157–165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  467. 467.
    Martin RS, Luong LA, Welsh NJ, Eglen RM, Martin GR, MacLennan SJ (2000) Effects of cannabinoid receptor agonists on neuronally-evoked contractions of urinary bladder tissues isolated from rat, mouse, pig, dog, monkey and human. Br J Pharmacol 129:1707–1715PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  468. 468.
    Martins JP, Silva RB, Coutinho-Silva R, Takiya CM, Battastini AM, Morrone FB, Campos MM (2012) The role of P2X7 purinergic receptors in inflammatory and nociceptive changes accompanying cyclophosphamide-induced haemorrhagic cystitis in mice. Br J Pharmacol 165:183–196PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  469. 469.
    Mastri AR (1980) Neuropathology of diabetic neurogenic bladder. Ann Intern Med 92:316–318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  470. 470.
    Masuda N, Uchida W, Shirai Y, Shibasaki K, Goto K, Takenaka T (1995) Effect of the potassium channel opener YM934 on the contractile response to electrical field stimulation in pig detrusor smooth muscle. J Urol 154:1914–1920PubMedGoogle Scholar
  471. 471.
    Matsumoto-Miyai K, Kagase A, Murakawa Y, Momota Y, Kawatani M (2009) Extracellular Ca2+ regulates the stimulus-elicited ATP release from urothelium. Auton Neurosci 150:94–99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  472. 472.
    Matsumoto-Miyai K, Yamada E, Yoshizumi M, Kawatani M (2012) The regulation of distention-induced ATP release from urothelium by the adenylyl cyclase-cyclic AMP pathway. Biomed Res 33:153–157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  473. 473.
    Matsumura S, Taira N, Hashimoto K (1968) The pharmacological behaviour of the urinary bladder and its vasculature of the dog. Tohoku J Exp Med 96:247–258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  474. 474.
    Mattiasson A, Andersson K-E, Andersson PO, Larsson B, Sjögren C, Uvelius B (1990) Nerve-mediated functions in the circular and longitudinal muscle layers of the proximal female rabbit urethra. J Urol 143:155–160PubMedGoogle Scholar
  475. 475.
    McCarthy CJ, Zabbarova IV, Brumovsky PR, Roppolo JR, Gebhart GF, Kanai AJ (2009) Spontaneous contractions evoke afferent nerve firing in mouse bladders with detrusor overactivity. J Urol 181:1459–1466PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  476. 476.
    McCloskey KD (2011) Interstitial cells of Cajal in the urinary tract. Handb Exp Pharmacol 202:233–254Google Scholar
  477. 477.
    McCloskey KD, Anderson UA, Davidson RA, Bayguinov YR, Sanders KM, Ward SM (2009) Comparison of mechanical and electrical activity and interstitial cells of Cajal in urinary bladders from wild-type and W/W v mice. Br J Pharmacol 156:273–283PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  478. 478.
    McDermott C, Chess-Williams R, Grant GD, Perkins AV, McFarland AJ, Davey AK, Anoopkumar-Dukie S (2012) Effects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence factor pyocyanin on human urothelial cell function and viability. J Urol 187:1087–1093PubMedGoogle Scholar
  479. 479.
    McDonald WF, White TD (1984) Adenosine released from synaptosomes is derived from the extracelluar dephosphonylation of released ATP. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatr 8:487–494Google Scholar
  480. 480.
    McGuire EJ, Herlihy E (1978) Bladder and urethral responses to isolated sacral motor root stimulation. Invest Urol 16:219–223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  481. 481.
    McMurray G, Dass N, Brading AF (1998) Purinoceptor subtypes mediating contraction and relaxation of marmoset urinary bladder smooth muscle. Br J Pharmacol 123:1579–1586PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  482. 482.
    Meldrum LA, Burnstock G (1985) Evidence against VIP or substance P being the transmitter in non-cholinergic excitatory nerves supplying the guinea-pig bladder. J Pharm Pharmacol 37:432–434PubMedGoogle Scholar
  483. 483.
    Meng E, Chang HY, Chang SY, Sun GH, Yu DS, Cha TL (2011) Involvement of purinergic neurotransmission in ketamine induced bladder dysfunction. J Urol 186:1134–1141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  484. 484.
    Meng E, Lin WY, Lee WC, Chuang YC (2012) Pathophysiology of overactive bladder. LUTS 4:48–55Google Scholar
  485. 485.
    Meng E, Young JS, Brading AF (2008) Spontaneous activity of mouse detrusor smooth muscle and the effects of the urothelium. Neurourol Urodyn 27:79–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  486. 486.
    Messori E, Rizzi CA, Candura SM, Lucchelli A, Balestra B, Tonini M (1995) 5-Hydroxytryptamine receptors that facilitate excitatory neuromuscular transmission in the guinea-pig isolated detrusor muscle. Br J Pharmacol 115:677–683PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  487. 487.
    Michel AD, Lundström K, Buell GN, Surprenant A, Valera S, Humphrey PP (1996) The binding characteristics of a human bladder recombinant P2X purinoceptor, labelled with [3H]α-meATP, [35S]-ATPγS or [33P]-ATP. Br J Pharmacol 117:1254–1260PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  488. 488.
    Milicic I, Buckner SA, Daza A, Coghlan M, Fey TA, Brune ME, Gopalakrishnan M (2006) Pharmacological characterization of urinary bladder smooth muscle contractility following partial bladder outlet obstruction in pigs. Eur J Pharmacol 532:107–114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  489. 489.
    Miller H, Simpson CA, Yeates WK (1965) Bladder dysfunction in multiple sclerosis. Br Med J 1:1265–1269PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  490. 490.
    Mitchell ME, Gonzales R, Cabral BH, Bauer SB, Gearhart JP, Filmer RB (1987) Bladder augmentation problems in neurovesical dysfunction. Dialogues Ped Urol 10:1Google Scholar
  491. 491.
    Mochizuki T, Sokabe T, Araki I, Fujishita K, Shibasaki K, Uchida K, Naruse K, Koizumi S, Takeda M, Tominaga M (2009) The TRPV4 cation channel mediates stretch-evoked Ca2+ influx and ATP release in primary urothelial cell cultures. J Biol Chem 284:21257–21264PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  492. 492.
    Mohlin C, Säve S, Nilsson M, Persson K (2009) Studies of the extracellular ATP–adenosine pathway in human urinary tract epithelial cells. Pharmacology 84:196–202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  493. 493.
    Moon HS, Lee JW, Park SY, Son YW, Kim YT (2010) Oxybutynin and propiverine suppress adenosine triphosphate-induced bladder overactivity other than through antimuscarinic mechanisms. Urology 76:509–512PubMedGoogle Scholar
  494. 494.
    Moore KH, Gilpin SA, Dixon JS, Richmond DH, Sutherst JR (1992) Increase in presumptive sensory nerves of the urinary bladder in idiopathic detrusor instability. Br J Urol 70:370–372PubMedGoogle Scholar
  495. 495.
    Moore KH, Ray FR, Barden JA (2001) Loss of purinergic P2X3 and P2X5 receptor innervation in human detrusor from adults with urge incontinence. J Neurosci 21(RC166):1–6Google Scholar
  496. 496.
    Moreland RB, Brioni JD, Sullivan JP (2004) Emerging pharmacologic approaches for the treatment of lower urinary tract disorders. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 308:797–804PubMedGoogle Scholar
  497. 497.
    Morgan C, de Groat WC, Nadelhaft I (1986) The spinal distribution of sympathetic preganglionic and visceral primary afferent neurons that send axons into the hypogastric nerves of the cat. J Comp Neurol 243:23–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  498. 498.
    Moro C, Milligan C, Leeds C, Chess-Williams R (2009) Spontaneous contractile activity of the urothelium is increased by muscarinic and purinergic receptor stimulation. Neurourol Urodyn 28:867–868Google Scholar
  499. 499.
    Morris JL, Gibbins IL (1992) Co-transmission and neuromodulation. In: Burnstock G, Hoyle CHV (eds) Autonomic neuroeffector mechanisms. Harwood Academic Publishers, Chur, pp 33–119Google Scholar
  500. 500.
    Moss HE, Burnstock G (1985) A comparative study of electrical field stimulation of the guinea-pig, ferret and marmoset urinary bladder. Eur J Pharmacol 114:311–316PubMedGoogle Scholar
  501. 501.
    Moss HE, Lincoln J, Burnstock G (1987) A study of bladder dysfunction during streptozotocin-induced diabetes in the rat using an in vitro whole bladder preparation. J Urol 138:1279–1284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  502. 502.
    Moss HE, Tansey EM, Burnstock G (1989) Abnormalities of responses to autonomic stimulation in the mouse urinary bladder associated with Semliki Forest virus-induced demyelination. J Urol 142:850–854PubMedGoogle Scholar
  503. 503.
    Müller DP, Goss-Sampson MA (1990) Neurochemical, neurophysiological, and neuropathological studies in vitamin E deficiency. Crit Rev Neurobiol 5:239–263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  504. 504.
    Mumtaz FH, Lau DH, Siddiqui EJ, Morgan RJ, Thompson CS, Mikhailidis DP (2006) Changes in cholinergic and purinergic neurotransmission in the diabetic rabbit bladder. In Vivo 20:1–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  505. 505.
    Munoz A, Gangitano D, Smith CP, Boone TB, Somogyi GT (2009) Urothelium is the primary source of ATP and NO release in the rat urinary bladder: a novel method for an urothelium free preparation. J Urol 181:147Google Scholar
  506. 506.
    Munoz A, Romain Z, Munch E, Gangitano D, Boone T, Smith C, Somogyi G (2008) Changes in purinergic and nitrergic sensory signals in female rats during early diabetes. Neurourol Urodyn 28:110–111Google Scholar
  507. 507.
    Munoz A, Somogyi GT, Boone TB, Ford AP, Smith CP (2012) Modulation of bladder afferent signals in normal and spinal cord-injured rats by purinergic P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors. BJU Int 110:E409–E414PubMedGoogle Scholar
  508. 508.
    Munoz A, Somogyi GT, Boone TB, Smith CP (2011) Lumbosacral sensory neuronal activity is enhanced by activation of urothelial purinergic receptors. Brain Res Bull 86:380–384PubMedGoogle Scholar
  509. 509.
    Murakami S, Yoshida M, Masunaga K, Maeda Y, Ueda S (2008) Change in acetylcholine release from rat bladder with partial outlet obstruction. BJU Int 101:633–639PubMedGoogle Scholar
  510. 510.
    Nakagomi H, Mochizuki T, Miyamoto T, Kira S, Yoshiyama M, Araki I, Koizumi S, Moriyama Y, Takeda M (2011) VNUT plays an important role in vesicular storage and subsequent exocytosis of ATP from bladder epithelium upon mechanical stretch stimulation. Neurourol Urodyn 30:1181–1182Google Scholar
  511. 511.
    Nakagomi H, Mochizuki T, Miyamoto T, Yoshiyama M, Araki I, Moriyama Y, Koizumi S, Takeda M (2012) VNUT (vesicular nucleotide transporter) plays a crucial role in stretch-evoked ATP release from urothelium. J Urol 187:e203Google Scholar
  512. 512.
    Nakayama S (1993) Effects of excitatory neurotransmitters on Ca2+ channel current in smooth muscle cells isolated from guinea-pig urinary bladder. Br J Pharmacol 110:317–325PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  513. 513.
    Namasivayam S, Eardley I, Morrison JFB (1999) Purinergic sensory neurotransmission in the urinary bladder: an in vitro study in the rat. BJU Int 84:854–860PubMedGoogle Scholar
  514. 514.
    Nance DM, Burns J, Klein CM, Burden HW (1988) Afferent fibers in the reproductive system and pelvic viscera of female rats: anterograde tracing and immunocytochemical studies. Brain Res Bull 21:701–709PubMedGoogle Scholar
  515. 515.
    Naramatsu M, Yamashita T, Kokubun S (1997) The signalling pathway which causes contraction via P2-purinoceptors in rat urinary bladder smooth muscle. Br J Pharmacol 122:558–562PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  516. 516.
    Nazif O, Teichman JM, Gebhart GF (2007) Neural upregulation in interstitial cystitis. Urology 69:24–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  517. 517.
    Needleman P, Minkes MS, Douglas JR (1974) Stimulation of prostaglandin biosynthesis by adenine nucleotides. Profile of prostaglandin release by perfused organs. Circ Res 34:455–460PubMedGoogle Scholar
  518. 518.
    Nergårdh A, Kinn AC (1983) Neurotransmission in activation of the contractile response in the human urinary bladder. Scand J Urol Nephrol 17:153–157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  519. 519.
    Neuhaus J, Pfeiffer F, Wolburg H, Horn LC, Dorschner W (2005) Alterations in connexin expression in the bladder of patients with urge symptoms. BJU Int 96:670–676PubMedGoogle Scholar
  520. 520.
    Nicholls J, Hourani SMO, Kitchen I (1990) The ontogeny of purinoceptors in rat urinary bladder and duodenum. Br J Pharmacol 100:874–878PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  521. 521.
    Nicholls J, Hourani SMO, Kitchen I (1992) Characterization of P1-purinoceptors on rat duodenum and urinary bladder. Br J Pharmacol 105:639–642PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  522. 522.
    Nicholls J, Hourani SMO, Kitchen I (1992) Degradation of extracellular adenosine and ATP by adult and neonate rat duodenum and urinary bladder. Pharmacol Commun 2:203–210Google Scholar
  523. 523.
    Nile CJ, de Vente J, Gillespie JI (2010) Stretch independent regulation of prostaglandin E2 production within the isolated guinea-pig lamina propria. BJU Int 105:540–548PubMedGoogle Scholar
  524. 524.
    Nishiguchi J, Hayashi Y, Chancellor MB, de Miguel F, de Groat WC, Kumon H, Yoshimura N (2005) Detrusor overactivity induced by intravesical application of adenosine 5′-triphosphate under different delivery conditions in rats. Urology 66:1332–1337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  525. 525.
    Nishiguchi J, Sasaki K, Seki S, Chancellor MB, Erickson KA, de Groat WC, Kumon H, Yoshimura N (2004) Effects of isolectin B4-conjugated saporin, a targeting cytotoxin, on bladder overactivity induced by bladder irritation. Eur J Neurosci 20:474–482PubMedGoogle Scholar
  526. 526.
    Nishijima S, Sugaya K, Kadekawa K, Naka H, Miyazato M (2009) Comparison of the effect of anti-muscarinic agents on bladder activity, urinary ATP level, and autonomic nervous system in rats. Biomed Res 30:107–112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  527. 527.
    Nishimura T, Akasu T (1994) Endogenous ATP modulates nicotinic transmission through presynaptic P2 receptors in rabbit parasympathetic ganglia. Neurosci Res 19:S31Google Scholar
  528. 528.
    Nishimura T, Tokimasa T (1996) Purinergic cation channels in neurons of rabbit vesical parasympathetic ganglia. Neurosci Lett 212:215–217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  529. 529.
    Noto H, Roppolo JR, Steers WD, de Groat WC (1989) Excitatory and inhibitory influences on bladder activity elicited by electrical stimulation in the pontine micturition center in the rat. Brain Res 492:99–115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  530. 530.
    Nunn PA, Newgreen DT (1999) An investigation into the bladder responses induced via pelvic nerve stimulation in the anaesthetised rat. Br J Pharmacol 126:227PGoogle Scholar
  531. 531.
    Obara K, Lepor H, Walden PD (1998) Localization of P 2Y1 purinoceptor transcripts in the rat penis and urinary bladder. J Urol 160:587–591PubMedGoogle Scholar
  532. 532.
    Ochodnicky P, Michel MB, Butter JJ, Seth J, Panicker JN, Michel MC (2013) Bradykinin modulates spontaneous nerve growth factor production and stretch-induced ATP release in human urothelium. Pharmacol Res 70:147–154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  533. 533.
    Ohnishi N, Park YC, Kurita T, Kajimoto N (1997) Role of ATP and related purine compounds on urethral relaxation in male rabbits. Int J Urol 4:191–197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  534. 534.
    Oike M, Creed KE, Onoue H, Tanaka H, Ito Y (1998) Increase in calcium in smooth muscle cells of the rabbit bladder induced by acetylcholine and ATP. J Auton Nerv Syst 69:141–147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  535. 535.
    Olsen SM, Stover JD, Nagatomi J (2011) Examining the role of mechanosensitive ion channels in pressure mechanotransduction in rat bladder urothelial cells. Ann Biomed Eng 39:688–697PubMedGoogle Scholar
  536. 536.
    O'Reilly BA, Kosaka AH, Chang TK, Ford AP, Popert R, Rymer JM, McMahon SB (2001) A quantitative analysis of purinoceptor expression in human fetal and adult bladders. J Urol 165:1730–1734PubMedGoogle Scholar
  537. 537.
    O'Reilly BA, Kosaka AH, Knight GE, Chang TK, Ford APDW, Rymer JM, Popert R, Burnstock G, McMahon SB (2002) P2X receptors and their role in female idiopathic detrusor instability. J Urol 167:157–164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  538. 538.
    Ouslander JG (2004) Management of overactive bladder. N Engl J Med 350:786–799PubMedGoogle Scholar
  539. 539.
    Owen SJ, Massa HH, Rose'Meyer RB (2012) Loss of adenosine A2B receptor mediated relaxant responses in the aged female rat bladder; effects of dietary phytoestrogens. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 385:539–549PubMedGoogle Scholar
  540. 540.
    Palea S, Artibani W, Ostardo E, Trist DG, Pietra C (1993) Evidence for purinergic neurotransmission in human urinary bladder affected by interstitial cystitis. J Urol 150:2007–2012PubMedGoogle Scholar
  541. 541.
    Palea S, Corsi M, Pietra C, Artibani W, Calpista A, Gaviraghi G, Trist DG (1994) ADPβS induces contraction of the human isolated urinary bladder through a purinoceptor subtype different from P2X and P2Y. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 269:193–197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  542. 542.
    Palea S, Pietra C, Trist DG, Artibani W, Calpista A, Corsi M (1995) Evidence for the presence of both pre- and postjunctional P2-purinoceptor subtypes in human isolated urinary bladder. Br J Pharmacol 114:35–40PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  543. 543.
    Pandita RK, Andersson KE (2002) Intravesical adenosine triphosphate stimulates the micturition reflex in awake, freely moving rats. J Urol 168:1230–1234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  544. 544.
    Pannek J, Janek S, Sommerer F, Tannapfel A (2009) Expression of purinergic P2X2-receptors in neurogenic bladder dysfunction due to spinal cord injury: a preliminary immunohistochemical study. Spinal Cord 47:561–564PubMedGoogle Scholar
  545. 545.
    Parija SC, Raviprakash V, Mishra SK (1991) Adenosine- and α, β-methylene ATP-induced differential inhibition of cholinergic and non-cholinergic neurogenic responses in rat urinary bladder. Br J Pharmacol 102:396–400PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  546. 546.
    Park Y-C, Sugiyama T, Kaneko S, Kurita T (1986) Sympathetic contribution to bladder outlet obstructions: quantitative analysis of tissue catecholamine content. Neurourol Urodyn 5:573–577Google Scholar
  547. 547.
    Paro M, Italiano G, Travagli RA, Petrelli L, Zanoni R, Prosdocimi M, Fiori MG (1990) Cystometric changes in alloxan diabetic rats: evidence for functional and structural correlates of diabetic autonomic neuropathy. J Auton Nerv Syst 30:1–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  548. 548.
    Paro M, Prosdocimi M (1987) Experimental diabetes in the rat: alterations in the vesical function. J Auton Nerv Syst 21:59–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  549. 549.
    Paro M, Prosdocimi M, Zhang WX, Sutherland G, Sima AA (1989) Autonomic neuropathy in BB rats and alterations in bladder function. Diabetes 38:1023–1030PubMedGoogle Scholar
  550. 550.
    Partanen M, Santer RM, Hervonen A (1980) The effect of ageing on the histochemically demonstrable catecholamines in the hypogastric (main pelvic) ganglion of the rat. Histochem J 12:527–535PubMedGoogle Scholar
  551. 551.
    Patra PB, Westfall DP (1994) Potentiation of purinergic neurotransmission in guinea pig urinary bladder by histamine. J Urol 151:787–790PubMedGoogle Scholar
  552. 552.
    Patra PB, Westfall DP (1996) Potentiation by bradykinin and substance P of purinergic neurotransmission in urinary bladder. J Urol 156:532–535PubMedGoogle Scholar
  553. 553.
    Persson CGA (1976) Inhibitory effect at the bladder–urethral junction. Acta Physiol Scand 97:139–141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  554. 554.
    Persson K, Andersson K-E (1992) Nitric oxide and relaxation of pig lower urinary tract. Br J Pharmacol 106:416–422PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  555. 555.
    Pertwee RG, Fernando SR (1996) Evidence for the presence of cannabinoid CB1 receptors in mouse urinary bladder. Br J Pharmacol 118:2053–2058PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  556. 556.
    Peterson JS, Noronha-Blob L (1989) Effects of selective cholinergic antagonists and α, β-methylene ATP on guinea-pig urinary bladder contractions in vivo following pelvic nerve stimulation. J Auton Pharmacol 9:303–313PubMedGoogle Scholar
  557. 557.
    Piechota HJ, Dahms SE, Nunes LS, Dahiya R, Lue TF, Tanagho EA (1998) In vitro functional properties of the rat bladder regenerated by the bladder acellular matrix graft. J Urol 159:1717–1724PubMedGoogle Scholar
  558. 558.
    Pinna C, Bolego C, Puglisi L (1994) Effect of substance P and capsaicin on urinary bladder of diabetic rats and the role of the epithelium. Eur J Pharmacol 271:151–158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  559. 559.
    Pinna C, Glass R, Knight G, Bolego C, Puglisi L, Burnstock G (2005) Purine- and pyrimidine-induced responses and P2Y receptor characterisation in the hamster proximal urethra. Br J Pharmacol 144:510–518PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  560. 560.
    Pinna C, Knight G, Puglisi L, Burnstock G (1998) Neurogenic and non-neurogenic responses in the urinary bladder of hibernating hamster. Br J Pharmacol 123:1281–1287PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  561. 561.
    Pinna C, Puglisi L, Burnstock G (1998) ATP and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide relaxant responses in hamster isolated proximal urethra. Br J Pharmacol 124:1069–1074PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  562. 562.
    Pinna C, Sanvito P, Puglisi L (2006) Altered neurogenic and mechanical responses to acetylcholine, ATP and substance P in detrusor from rat with outlet obstruction. Life Sci 79:1301–1306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  563. 563.
    Pinna C, Ventura S, Puglisi L, Burnstock G (1996) A pharmacological and histochemical study of hamster urethra and the role of urothelium. Br J Pharmacol 119:655–662PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  564. 564.
    Pinna C, Zanardo R, Cignarella A, Bolego C, Eberini I, Nardi F, Zancan V, Puglisi L (2000) Diabetes influences the effet of 17β-estradiol on mechanical responses of rat urethra and detrusor strips. Life Sci 6:617–627Google Scholar
  565. 565.
    Pinna C, Zanardo R, Puglisi L (2000) Prostaglandin-release impairment in the bladder epithelium of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Eur J Pharmacol 388:267–273PubMedGoogle Scholar
  566. 566.
    Pittam BS, Burnstock G, Purves RD (1987) Urinary bladder intramural neurones: an electrophysiological study utilizing a tissue culture preparation. Brain Res 403:267–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  567. 567.
    Prakasam HS, Herrington H, Roppolo JR, Jackson EK, Apodaca G (2012) Modulation of bladder function by luminal adenosine turnover and A1 receptor activation. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 303:F279–F292PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  568. 568.
    Probst M, Dahiya R, Carrier S, Tanagho EA (1997) Reproduction of functional smooth muscle tissue and partial bladder replacement. Br J Urol 79:505–515PubMedGoogle Scholar
  569. 569.
    Prosdocimi M, Paro M (1990) Urinary bladder innervation in experimental diabetes. J Auton Nerv Syst 30:S123–S127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  570. 570.
    Qayyum MA, Fatani JA, Abbas MO (1989) Degeneration of adrenergic nerves in the urinary bladder during pregnancy. Acta Anat (Basel) 136:303–305Google Scholar
  571. 571.
    Ralevic V, Burnstock G (1998) Receptors for purines and pyrimidines. Pharmacol Rev 50:413–492PubMedGoogle Scholar
  572. 572.
    Rapp DE, Lyon MB, Bales GT, Cook SP (2005) A role for the P2X receptor in urinary tract physiology and in the pathophysiology of urinary dysfunction. Eur Urol 48:303–308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  573. 573.
    Rapp DE, Turk KW, Bales GT, Cook SP (2006) Botulinum toxin type A inhibits calcitonin gene-related peptide release from isolated rat bladder. J Urol 175:1138–1142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  574. 574.
    Ratz PH, McCammon KA, Altstatt D, Blackmore PF, Shenfeld OZ, Schlossberg SM (1999) Differential effects of sex hormones and phytoestrogens on peak and steady state contractions in isolated rabbit detrusor. J Urol 162:1821–1828PubMedGoogle Scholar
  575. 575.
    Ribeiro JA (1979) Purinergic modulation of transmitter release. J Theor Biol 80:259–270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  576. 576.
    Risholm L (1954) Studies on renal colic and its treatment by posterior splanchnic block. Acta Chir Scand Suppl 184:5–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  577. 577.
    Rocha I, Burnstock G, Spyer KM (2001) Effect on urinary bladder function and arterial blood pressure of the activation of putative purine receptors in brainstem areas. Auton Neurosci 88:6–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  578. 578.
    Rockenbach L, Bavaresco L, Fernandes FP, Cappellari AR, Barrios CH, Bueno MF, Oliveira Battastini AM (2013) Alterations in the extracellular catabolism of nucleotides are involved in the antiproliferative effect of quercetin in human bladder cancer T24 cells. Urol Oncol 31:1204–1211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  579. 579.
    Rong W, Burnstock G (2004) Activation of ureter nociceptors by exogenous and endogenous ATP in guinea pig. Neuropharmacology 47:1093–1101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  580. 580.
    Rong W, Spyer M, Burnstock G (2002) Activation and sensitisation of low and high threshold afferent fibres mediated by P2X receptors in the mouse urinary bladder. J Physiol 541:591–600PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  581. 581.
    Roza C, Laird JM, Cervero F (1998) Spinal mechanisms underlying persistent pain and referred hyperalgesia in rats with an experimental ureteric stone. J Neurophysiol 79:1603–1612PubMedGoogle Scholar
  582. 582.
    Ruggieri MR (2006) Mechanisms of disease: role of purinergic signaling in the pathophysiology of bladder dysfunction. Nat Clin Pract Urol 3:206–215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  583. 583.
    Ruggieri MR, Whitmore KE, Levin RM (1990) Bladder purinergic receptors. J Urol 144:176–181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  584. 584.
    Ryhammer AM, Bek KM, Laurberg S (1995) Multiple vaginal deliveries increase the risk of permanent incontinence of flatus urine in normal premenopausal women. Dis Colon Rectum 38:1206–1209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  585. 585.
    Sadananda P, Kao FC, Liu L, Mansfield KJ, Burcher E (2012) Acid and stretch, but not capsaicin, are effective stimuli for ATP release in the porcine bladder mucosa: are ASIC and TRPV1 receptors involved? Eur J Pharmacol 683:252–259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  586. 586.
    Sadananda P, Mansfield KJ, Burcher E (2009) ATP release in response to acid and capsaicin provides evidence for sensory roles of vanilloid and asic receptor systems in the rat bladder mucosa. J Urol 181:147Google Scholar
  587. 587.
    Saito M, Gotoh M, Kato K, Kondo A (1991) Influence of aging on the rat urinary bladder function. Urol Int 47:39–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  588. 588.
    Saito M, Kondo A, Kato T, Hasegawa S, Miyake K (1993) Response of the human neurogenic bladder to KCl, carbachol, ATP and CaCl2. Br J Urol 72:298–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  589. 589.
    Saito M, Kondo A, Kato T, Levin RM (1993) Response of isolated human neurogenic detrusor smooth muscle to intramural nerve stimulation. Br J Urol 72:723–727PubMedGoogle Scholar
  590. 590.
    Saito M, Ohmura M, Kondo A (1996) Effects of long-term partial outflow obstruction on bladder function in the rat. Neurourol Urodyn 15:157–165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  591. 591.
    Salmon UJ, Walter RI, Geist SH (1941) The use of estrogens in the treatment of dysuria and incontinence in postmenopausal women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 42:845–851Google Scholar
  592. 592.
    Sann H, Cervero F (1988) Afferent innervation of the guinea-pig's ureter. Agents Actions 25:243–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  593. 593.
    Sann H, Jancsó G, Ambrus A, Pierau F-K (1995) Capsaicin treatment induces selective sensory degeneration and increased sympathetic innervation in the rat ureter. Neuroscience 67:953–966PubMedGoogle Scholar
  594. 594.
    Sann H, Walb G, Pierau FK (1997) Postnatal development of the autonomic and sensory innervation of the musculature in the rat urinary bladder. Neurosci Lett 236:29–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  595. 595.
    Santicioli P, Gamse R, Maggi CA, Meli A (1987) Cystometric changes in the early phase of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats: evidence for sensory changes not correlated to diabetic neuropathy. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 335:580–587PubMedGoogle Scholar
  596. 596.
    Santicioli P, Maggi CA, Meli A (1986) The postganglionic excitatory innervation of the mouse urinary bladder and its modulation by prejunctional GABAB receptors. J Auton Pharmacol 6:53–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  597. 597.
    Santoso AG, Sonarno IA, Arsad NA, Liang W (2010) The role of the urothelium and ATP in mediating detrusor smooth muscle contractility. Urology 76:1267–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  598. 598.
    Säve S, Persson K (2010) Effects of adenosine A2A and A2B receptor activation on signaling pathways and cytokine production in human uroepithelial cells. Pharmacology 86:129–137PubMedGoogle Scholar
  599. 599.
    Säve S, Persson K (2010) Extracellular ATP and P2Y receptor activation induce a proinflammatory host response in the human urinary tract. Infect Immun 78:3609–3615PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  600. 600.
    Schaufele P, Schumacher E, Acevedo CG, Contreras E (1995) Diazepam, adenosine analogues and calcium channel antagonists inhibit the contractile activity of the mouse urinary bladder. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 329:454–466PubMedGoogle Scholar
  601. 601.
    Schwartzman RJ (1993) Reflex sympathetic dystrophy. Curr Opin Neurol Neurosurg 6:531–536PubMedGoogle Scholar
  602. 602.
    Searl TJ, Silinsky EM (2012) Modulation of purinergic neuromuscular transmission by phorbol dibutyrate is independent of protein kinase C in murine urinary bladder. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 342:312–317PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  603. 603.
    Semerdzhiev Y, Frederiksen H, Hedlund P, Davidsson T, Mansson W, Uvelius B (2006) Cystometric and in vitro muscle studies of cystoplastic appendiceal segments in the rat. Neurourol Urodyn 25:259–267PubMedGoogle Scholar
  604. 604.
    Senba E, Daddona PE, Nagy JI (1987) Development of adenosine deaminase-immunoreactive neurons in the rat brain. Brain Res 428:59–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  605. 605.
    Shabbir M, Burnstock G (2009) Purinergic receptor-mediated effects of ATP in urogenital malignant diseases. Int J Urol 16:143–150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  606. 606.
    Shabbir M, Ryten M, Thompson CS, Mikhailidis DP, Burnstock G (2008) Purinergic receptor-mediated effects of ATP in high-grade bladder cancer. BJU Int 101:106–112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  607. 607.
    Shabir S, Cross W, Kirkwood L, Pearson JF, Appleby PA, Walker D, Eardley I, Southgate J (2013) Functional expression of purinergic P2 receptors and transient receptor potential channels by human urothelium. Am J Physiol - Renal Physiol 305:F396–406Google Scholar
  608. 608.
    Shafik A, El-Sibai O, Shafik AA, Shafik I (2004) Identification of interstitial cells of Cajal in human urinary bladder: concept of vesical pacemaker. Urology 64:809–813PubMedGoogle Scholar
  609. 609.
    Shinnick-Gallagher P, Gallagher JA, Griffith WH (1986) Inhibition in parasympathetic ganglia. In: Karczmar AG, Koketsu K, Nishi S (eds) Autonomic and enteric ganglia. Plenum, New York, pp 335–367Google Scholar
  610. 610.
    Shinozuka K, Bjur RA, Westfall DP (1990) Effects of α, β-methylene ATP on the prejunctional purinoceptors of the sympathetic nerves of the rat caudal artery. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 254:900–904PubMedGoogle Scholar
  611. 611.
    Sibley GNA (1984) A comparison of spontaneous and nerve-mediated activity in bladder muscle from man, pig and rabbit. J Physiol 354:431–443PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  612. 612.
    Silinsky EM, Hubbard JI (1973) Release of ATP from rat motor nerve terminals. Nature 243:404–405PubMedGoogle Scholar
  613. 613.
    Silva J, Silva C, Saraiva L, Silva A, Pinto R, Dinis P, Cruz F (2008) Intraprostatic botulinum toxin type A injection in patients unfit for surgery presenting with refractory urinary retention and benign prostatic enlargement. Effect on prostate volume and micturition resumption. Eur Urol 53:153–159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  614. 614.
    Silva-Ramos M, Duarte-Araújo M, Silva I, Lafuente-De-Carvalho JM, Correia-De-Sá P (2009) Activation of P2X1 purinoceptors facilitate evoked acetylcholine release in human obstructed bladders. Eur Urol Suppl 8:189Google Scholar
  615. 615.
    Silva-Ramos M, Silva I, Oliveira O, Ferreira S, Reis MJ, Oliveira JC, Correia-de-Sá P (2013) Urinary ATP may be a dynamic biomarker of detrusor overactivity in women with overactive bladder syndrome. PLoS One 8:e64696PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  616. 616.
    Silva-Ramos M, Silva I, Timoteo MA, Carneito I, Vieira C, Silva N, Monteiro D, Correia J, Ferreirinha F, Sévigny J, Correia-De-Sá P (2012) UDP-sensitive P2Y6 receptors play a dual role in the human urinary bladder indirectly via the release of ATP from urothelium. Neurourol Urodyn 31:1023Google Scholar
  617. 617.
    Sjögren C, Andersson KE (1979) Inhibition of ATP-induced contraction in the guinea-pig urinary bladder in vitro and in vivo. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol (Copenh) 44:221–227Google Scholar
  618. 618.
    Sjögren C, Andersson K-E (1979) Effects of cholinoceptor blocking drugs, adrenoceptor stimulants, and calcium antagonists on the transmurally stimulated guinea-pig urinary bladder in vitro and in vivo. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol 44:228–234Google Scholar
  619. 619.
    Sjögren C, Andersson K-E, Andersson PO, Mattiasson A, Uvelius B (1988) Different effects of neuropeptide Y on electrically induced contractions in the longitudinal and circular smooth muscle layers of the female rabbit urethra. Acta Physiol Scand 133:177–181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  620. 620.
    Sjögren C, Andersson K-E, Husted S, Mattiasson A, Møller-Madsen B (1982) Atropine resistance of transmurally stimulated isolated human bladder muscle. J Urol 128:1368–1371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  621. 621.
    Sjuve Scott R, Uvelius B, Arner A (2004) Changes in intracellular calcium concentration and P2X1 receptor expression in hypertrophic rat urinary bladder smooth muscle. Neurourol Urodyn 23:361–366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  622. 622.
    Sjuve R, Ingvarson T, Arner A, Uvelius B (1995) Effects of purinoceptor agonists on smooth muscle from hypertrophied rat urinary bladder. Eur J Pharmacol 276:137–144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  623. 623.
    Smith DJ, Chapple CR (1994) In vitro response of human bladder smooth muscle in unstable obstructed male bladders: a study of pathophysiological causes. Neurourol Urodyn 13:414–415Google Scholar
  624. 624.
    Smith CP, Gangitano DA, Munoz A, Salas NA, Boone TB, Aoki KR, Francis J, Somogyi GT (2008) Botulinum toxin type A normalizes alterations in urothelial ATP and NO release induced by chronic spinal cord injury. Neurochem Int 52:1068–1075PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  625. 625.
    Smith CP, Radziszewski P, Borkowski A, Somogyi GT, Boone TB, Chancellor MB (2004) Botulinum toxin A has antinociceptive effects in treating interstitial cystitis. Urology 64:871–875PubMedGoogle Scholar
  626. 626.
    Smith CP, Vemulakonda VM, Kiss S, Boone TB, Somogyi GT (2005) Enhanced ATP release from rat bladder urothelium during chronic bladder inflammation: effect of botulinum toxin A. Neurochem Int 47:291–297PubMedGoogle Scholar
  627. 627.
    Sneddon P, Burnstock G (1984) Inhibition of excitatory junction potentials in guinea-pig vas deferens by α, β-methylene-ATP: further evidence for ATP and noradrenaline as cotransmitters. Eur J Pharmacol 100:85–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  628. 628.
    Sneddon P, McLees A (1992) Purinergic and cholinergic contractions in adult and neonatal rabbit bladder. Eur J Pharmacol 214:7–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  629. 629.
    Snyder SH (1985) Adenosine as a neuromodulator. Annu Rev Neurosci 8:103–124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  630. 630.
    Sosnowski M, Yaksh TL (1990) The role of spinal and brainstem adenosine receptors in the modulation of the volume-evoked micturition reflex in the unanesthetized rat. Brain Res 515:207–213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  631. 631.
    Speakman MJ, Walmsley D, Brading AF (1988) An in vitro pharmacological study of the human trigone — a site of non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic neurotransmission. Br J Urol 61:304–309PubMedGoogle Scholar
  632. 632.
    Sperlágh B, Vizi ES (1991) Effect of presynaptic P2 receptor stimulation on transmitter release. J Neurochem 56:1466–1470PubMedGoogle Scholar
  633. 633.
    Spitsbergen JM, Clemow DB, McCarty R, Steers WD, Tuttle JB (1998) Neurally mediated hyperactive voiding in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Brain Res 790:151–159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  634. 634.
    Stanton SL, Kerr-Wilson R, Harris VG (1980) The incidence of urological symptoms in normal pregnancy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 87:897–900PubMedGoogle Scholar
  635. 635.
    Steers WD, Mackway-Gerardi AM, Ciambotti J, de Groat WC (1994) Alterations in neural pathways to the urinary bladder of the rat in response to streptozotocin-induced diabetes. J Auton Nerv Syst 47:83–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  636. 636.
    Sterling K, Roth J, Laaris N, Chai T, Sun Y (2012) Rat and human bladder urothelial cells have decreased ATP-evoked increase in intracellular calcium with knockdown of P2Y2 receptors. J Urol 187:e107Google Scholar
  637. 637.
    Stewart FA (1986) Mechanism of bladder damage and repair after treatment with radiation and cytostatic drugs. Br J Cancer 53:280–291Google Scholar
  638. 638.
    Studeny S, Torabi A, Vizzard MA (2005) P2X2 and P2X3 receptor expression in postnatal and adult rat urinary bladder and lumbosacral spinal cord. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 289:R1155–R1168PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  639. 639.
    Suadicani SO, Urban-Maldonado M, Tar MT, Melman A, Spray DC (2009) Effects of ageing and streptozotocin-induced diabetes on connexin43 and P2 purinoceptor expression in the rat corpora cavernosa and urinary bladder. BJU Int 103:1686–1693PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  640. 640.
    Sugaya K, Nishijima S, Tasaki S, Kadekawa K, Miyazato M, Ogawa Y (2007) Effects of propiverine and naftopidil on the urinary ATP level and bladder activity after bladder stimulation in rats. Neurosci Lett 429:142–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  641. 641.
    Sugaya K, Nishijima S, Tasaki S, Kadekawa K, Miyazato M, Ogawa Y (2008) Mechanisms by which a phytotherapeutic drug influences bladder activity in rats. J Urol 179:770–774PubMedGoogle Scholar
  642. 642.
    Sui GP, Wu C, Fry CH (2004) Electrical characteristics of suburothelial cells isolated from the human bladder. J Urol 171:938–943PubMedGoogle Scholar
  643. 643.
    Sui GP, Wu C, Fry CH (2006) Characterization of the purinergic receptor subtype on guinea-pig suburothelial myofibroblasts. BJU Int 97:1327–1331PubMedGoogle Scholar
  644. 644.
    Sun Y, Chai TC (2002) Effects of dimethyl sulphoxide and heparin on stretch-activated ATP release by bladder urothelial cells from patients with interstitial cystitis. BJU Int 90:381–385PubMedGoogle Scholar
  645. 645.
    Sun Y, Chai TC (2004) Up-regulation of P2X3 receptor during stretch of bladder urothelial cells from patients with interstitial cystitis. J Urol 171:448–452PubMedGoogle Scholar
  646. 646.
    Sun Y, Chai TC (2006) Augmented extracellular ATP signaling in bladder urothelial cells from patients with interstitial cystitis. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 290:C27–C34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  647. 647.
    Sun Y, Keay S, Deyne P, Chai T (2001) Stretch-activated release of adenosine triphosphate by bladder uroepithelia is augmented in interstitial cystitis. Urology 57:131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  648. 648.
    Sun Y, Keay S, Lehrfeld TJ, Chai TC (2009) Changes in adenosine triphosphate-stimulated ATP release suggest association between cytokine and purinergic signaling in bladder urothelial cells. Urology 74:1163–1168PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  649. 649.
    Sun Y, MaLossi J, Jacobs SC, Chai TC (2002) Effect of doxazosin on stretch-activated adenosine triphosphate release in bladder urothelial cells from patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Urology 60:351–356PubMedGoogle Scholar
  650. 650.
    Suzuki H, Kokubun S (1994) Subtypes of purinoceptors in rat and dog urinary bladder smooth muscles. Br J Pharmacol 112:117–122PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  651. 651.
    Syed N, Kennedy C (2012) Pharmacology of P2X receptors. WIREs Membr Transp Signal 1:16–30Google Scholar
  652. 652.
    Tagliani M, Candura SM, Di Nucci A, Franceschetti GP, D'Agostino G, Ricotti P, Fiori E, Tonini M (1997) A re-appraisal of the nature of the atropine-resistant contraction to electrical field stimulation in the human isolated detrusor muscle. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 356:750–755PubMedGoogle Scholar
  653. 653.
    Taira N (1972) The autonomic pharmacology of the bladder. Annu Rev Pharmacol 12:197–208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  654. 654.
    Takahashi R, Yunoki T, Naito S, Yoshimura N (2012) Differential effects of botulinum neurotoxin A on bladder contractile responses to activation of efferent nerves, smooth muscles and afferent nerves in rats. J Urol 188:1993–1999PubMedGoogle Scholar
  655. 655.
    Takeda M, Lepor H (1995) Nitric oxide synthase in dog urethra: a histochemical and pharmacological analysis. Br J Pharmacol 116:2517–2523PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  656. 656.
    Takeda M, Mochizuki T, Yoshiyama M, Nakagomi H, Kobayashi H, Sawada N, Zakohji H, Du S, Araki I (2010) Sensor mechanism and afferent signal transduction of the urinary bladder: special focus on transient receptor potential ion channels. LUTS 2:51–60Google Scholar
  657. 657.
    Tammela TL, Briscoe JA, Levin RM, Longhurst PA (1994) Factors underlying the increased sensitivity to field stimulation of urinary bladder strips from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Br J Pharmacol 113:195–203PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  658. 658.
    Tammela T, Kontturi M, Lukkarinen O (1986) Postoperative urinary retention: II. Micturition problems after the first catheterization. Scand J Urol Nephrol 20:257–260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  659. 659.
    Tammela T, Lasanen L, Waris T (1990) Effect of distension on adrenergic innervation of the rat urinary bladder. Urol Res 18:345–348PubMedGoogle Scholar
  660. 660.
    Tanaka I, Nagase K, Tanase K, Aoki Y, Akino H, Yokoyama O (2011) Modulation of stretch evoked adenosine triphosphate release from bladder epithelium by prostaglandin E2. J Urol 185:341–346PubMedGoogle Scholar
  661. 661.
    Tanner R, Chambers P, Khadra MH, Gillespie JI (2000) The production of nerve growth factor by human bladder smooth muscle cells in vivo and in vitro. BJU Int 85:1115–1119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  662. 662.
    Tempest HV, Dixon AK, Turner WH, Elneil S, Sellers LA, Ferguson DR (2004) P2X and P2X receptor expression in human bladder urothelium and changes in interstitial cystitis. BJU Int 93:1344–1348PubMedGoogle Scholar
  663. 663.
    Theobald RJ Jr (1982) Arylazido aminopropionyl ATP (ANAPP3) antagonism of cat urinary bladder contractions. J Auton Pharmacol 2:175–179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  664. 664.
    Theobald RJ Jr (1983) The effect of arylazido aminopropionyl ATP on atropine resistant contractions of the cat urinary bladder. Life Sci 32:2479–2484PubMedGoogle Scholar
  665. 665.
    Theobald RJ Jr (1983) Evidence against purinergic nerve fibres in the hypogastric nerves of the cat. J Auton Pharmacol 3:235–239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  666. 666.
    Theobald RJ Jr (1986) Changes in ureteral peristaltic activity induced by various stimuli. Neurourol Urodyn 5:493–505Google Scholar
  667. 667.
    Theobald RJ Jr (1992) Subclasses of purinoceptors in feline bladder. Eur J Pharmacol 229:125–130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  668. 668.
    Theobald RJ Jr (1995) Purinergic and cholinergic components of bladder contractility and flow. Life Sci 56:445–454PubMedGoogle Scholar
  669. 669.
    Theobald RJ Jr, de Groat WC (1989) The effects of purine nucleotides on transmission in vesical parasympathetic ganglia of the cat. J Auton Pharmacol 9:167–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  670. 670.
    Theobald RJ Jr, Hoffman V (1986) Long-lasting blockade of P2-receptors of the urinary bladder in vivo following photolysis of arylazido aminopropionyl ATP, a photoaffinity label. Life Sci 38:1591–1595PubMedGoogle Scholar
  671. 671.
    Theobald RJ Jr, Zepp EA, Westhoff R (1988) Endocrine influences on the detrusor of male and female cats. Neurourol Urodynam 7:493–500Google Scholar
  672. 672.
    Thi M, Melman A, Spray DC, Suadicani S (2011) Pannexin-1 channels provide a pathway for ATP release from rat bladder mucosa. Neurourol Urodyn 30:235–236Google Scholar
  673. 673.
    Thiruchelvam N, Wu C, David A, Woolf AS, Cuckow PM, Fry CH (2003) Neurotransmission and viscoelasticity in the ovine fetal bladder after in utero bladder outflow obstruction. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 284:R1296–R1305PubMedGoogle Scholar
  674. 674.
    Thornbury KD, Hollywood MA, McHale NG (1992) Mediation by nitric oxide of neurogenic relaxation of the urinary bladder neck muscle in sheep. J Physiol 451:133–144PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  675. 675.
    Thorneloe KS, Meredith AL, Knorn AM, Aldrich RW, Nelson MT (2005) Urodynamic properties and neurotransmitter dependence of urinary bladder contractility in the BK channel deletion model of overactive bladder. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 289:F604–F610PubMedGoogle Scholar
  676. 676.
    Toji S, Watanabe T, Miyagawa I (2008) Effects of long-term estrogen treatment on micturition behavior and the sensory neurons of the urinary bladder in old female rats. Urol Int 81:462–467PubMedGoogle Scholar
  677. 677.
    Tomlinson DR, Yusof AP (1983) Autonomic neuropathy in the alloxan-diabetic rat. J Auton Pharmacol 3:257–263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  678. 678.
    Tong YC, Hung Y-C, Cheng JT (1997) Evidence of P2Y-purinoceptor mediated bladder neck smooth muscle post-contractile relaxation in the male mini-pig. Neurosci Lett 225:181–184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  679. 679.
    Tong Y-C, Hung Y-C, Lin JSN, Hsu C-T, Cheng J-T (1995) Effects of pregnancy and progesterone on autonomic function in the rat urinary bladder. Pharmacology 50:192–200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  680. 680.
    Tong YC, Hung YC, Shinozuka K, Kunitomo M, Cheng JT (1997) Evidence of adenosine 5′-triphosphate release from nerve and P2X-purinoceptor mediated contraction during electrical stimulation of rat urinary bladder smooth muscle. J Urol 158:1973–1977PubMedGoogle Scholar
  681. 681.
    Tran LV, Somogyi GT, de Groat WC (1994) Inhibitory effect of neuropeptide Y on adrenergic and cholinergic transmission in rat urinary bladder and urethra. Am J Physiol 266:R1411–R1417PubMedGoogle Scholar
  682. 682.
    Tsai MH, Kamm KE, Stull JT (2012) Signalling to contractile proteins by muscarinic and purinergic pathways in neurally stimulated bladder smooth muscle. J Physiol 590:5107–5121PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  683. 683.
    Tugay M, Yildiz F, Utkan T, Gacar N, Ulak G, Erden F (2003) Age-related smooth muscle reactivity changes in the rat bladder: an in vitro study. Pharmacol Res 48:329–334PubMedGoogle Scholar
  684. 684.
    Turan C, Zorlu CG, Ekin M, Hancerliogullari N, Saracoglu F (1996) Urinary incontinence in women of reproductive age. Gynecol Obstet Invest 41:132–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  685. 685.
    Udoh FV (1995) Effects of leaf and root extracts of Nauclea latifolia on purinergic neurotransmission in the rat bladder. Phytother Res 9:239–243Google Scholar
  686. 686.
    Ursillo RC (1961) Investigation of certain aspects of atropine-resistant nerve effects. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 131:231–236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  687. 687.
    Usune S, Katsuragi T, Furukawa T (1996) Effects of PPADS and suramin on contractions and cytoplasmic Ca2+ changes evoked by AP4A, ATP and α, β-methylene ATP in guinea-pig urinary bladder. Br J Pharmacol 117:698–702PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  688. 688.
    Utkan T, Erden F, Yildiz F, Özdemirci S, Ulak G, Gacar MN (2001) Chronic ethanol consumption impairs adrenoceptor- and purinoceptor-mediated relaxations of isolated rat detrusor smooth muscle. BJU Int 88:278–283PubMedGoogle Scholar
  689. 689.
    Uvelius B (1986) Detrusor smooth muscle in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes. J Urol 136:949–952PubMedGoogle Scholar
  690. 690.
    Uvelius B, Gabella G (1995) Intramural neurones appear in the urinary bladder wall following excision of the pelvic ganglion in the rat. Neuroreport 6:2213–2216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  691. 691.
    Uvin P, Boudes M, Menigoz A, Franken J, Pinto S, Gevaert T, Verplaetse R, Tytgat J, Vennekens R, Voets T, De Ridder D (2013) Chronic administration of anticholinergics in rats induces a shift from muscarinic to purinergic transmission in the bladder wall. Eur Urol 64:502–510PubMedGoogle Scholar
  692. 692.
    Vaidyanathan S, Rao MS, Mapa MK, Rao K, Sharma PL, Chary KS (1982) Detrusor supersensitivity to 15(S),15-methyl prostaglandin F2α in chronic neurogenic vesical dysfunction. Indian J Med Res 75:839–845PubMedGoogle Scholar
  693. 693.
    Vale JA, Liu K, Whitfield HN, Trott KR (1994) Post-irradiation bladder dysfunction: muscle strip findings. Urol Res 22:51–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  694. 694.
    Valera S, Hussy N, Evans RJ, Adani N, North RA, Surprenant A, Buell G (1994) A new class of ligand-gated ion channel defined by P2X receptor for extra-cellular ATP. Nature 371:516–519PubMedGoogle Scholar
  695. 695.
    Valera S, Talabot F, Evans RJ, Gos A, Antonarakis SE, Morris MA, Buell GN (1995) Characterization and chromosomal localization of a human P2X receptor from the urinary bladder. Receptors Channels 3:283–289PubMedGoogle Scholar
  696. 696.
    Van Nassauw L, Costagliola A, Van Op den bosch J, Cecio A, Vanderwinden J-M, Burnstock G, Timmermans J-P (2006) Region-specific distribution of the P2Y4 receptor in enteric glial cells and interstitial cells of Cajal within the guinea-pig gastrointestinal tract. Auton Neurosci: Basic Clin 126–127:299–306Google Scholar
  697. 697.
    Vaught JD, Kropp BP, Sawyer BD, Rippy MK, Badylak SF, Shannon HE, Thor KB (1996) Detrusor regeneration in the rat using porcine small intestinal submucosal grafts: functional innervation and receptor expression. J Urol 155:374–378PubMedGoogle Scholar
  698. 698.
    Velasco C, Guarneri L, Leonardi A, Testa R (2003) Effects of intravenous and infravesical administration of suramin, terazosin and BMY 7378 on bladder instability in conscious rats with bladder outlet obstruction. BJU Int 92:131–136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  699. 699.
    Veselá R, Aronsson P, Andersson M, Wsol V, Tobin G (2012) The potential of non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic targets in the treatment of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome. J Physiol Pharmacol 63:209–216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  700. 700.
    Veselá R, Aronsson P, Tobin G (2011) Functional and morphological examinations of P1A1 purinoceptors in the normal and inflamed urinary bladder of the rat. Auton Neurosci 159:26–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  701. 701.
    Veselá R, Asklund H, Aronsson P, Johnsson M, Wsol V, Andersson M, Tobin G (2012) Coupled nitric oxide and autonomic receptor functional responses in the normal and inflamed urinary bladder of the rat. Physiol Res 61:371–380PubMedGoogle Scholar
  702. 702.
    Vial C, Evans RJ (2000) P2X receptor expression in mouse urinary bladder and the requirement of P2X1 receptors for functional P2X receptor responses in the mouse urinary bladder smooth muscle. Br J Pharmacol 131:1489–1495PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  703. 703.
    Vizzard MA, Erdman SL, de Groat WC (1996) Increased expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in bladder afferent pathways following chronic bladder irritation. J Comp Neurol 370:191–202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  704. 704.
    Vlaskovska M, Kasakov L, Rong W, Bodin P, Bardini M, Cockayne DA, Ford APDW, Burnstock G (2001) P2X3 knockout mice reveal a major sensory role for urothelially released ATP. J Neurosci 21:5670–5677PubMedGoogle Scholar
  705. 705.
    von Kügelgen I (1994) Purinoceptors modulating the release of noradrenaline. J Auton Pharmacol 14:11–12Google Scholar
  706. 706.
    von Kügelgen I, Schöffel E, Starke K (1989) Inhibition by nucleotides acting at presynaptic P2-receptors of sympathetic neuro-effector transmission in the mouse isolated vas deferens. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 340:522–532Google Scholar
  707. 707.
    Wada Y, Yoshida M, Kitani K, Kikukawa H, Ichinose A, Takahashi W, Gotoh S, Inadome A, Machida J, Ueda S (1995) Comparison of the effects of various anticholinergic drugs on human isolated urinary bladder. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 330:76–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  708. 708.
    Walczak JS, Price TJ, Cervero F (2009) Cannabinoid CB1 receptors are expressed in the mouse urinary bladder and their activation modulates afferent bladder activity. Neuroscience 159:1154–1163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  709. 709.
    Walsh CA, Cheng Y, Mansfield KJ, Parkin K, Mukerjee C, Moore KH (2013) Decreased intravesical adenosine triphosphate in patients with refractory detrusor overactivity and bacteriuria. J Urol 189:1383–1387PubMedGoogle Scholar
  710. 710.
    Wammack R, Weihe E, Dienes HP, Hohenfeller R (1995) Die neurogene blase in vitro. Akt Urol 26:16–18Google Scholar
  711. 711.
    Wang Z, Cristofaro V, Cheng Z, Xiao X, Ge R, Sullivan M, White M, Olumi A (2013) Urothelium-released ATP contributes to bladder dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. J Urol 189:e116Google Scholar
  712. 712.
    Wang Y, Fang Q, Lu Y, Song B, Li W, Li L (2010) Effects of mechanical stretch on interstitial cells of Cajal in guinea pig bladder. J Surg Res 164:e213–e219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  713. 713.
    Wang EC, Lee JM, Ruiz WG, Balestreire EM, von Bodungen M, Barrick S, Cockayne DA, Birder LA, Apodaca G (2005) ATP and purinergic receptor-dependent membrane traffic in bladder umbrella cells. J Clin Invest 115:2412–2422PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  714. 714.
    Waterman SA (1996) Multiple subtypes of voltage-gated calcium channel mediate transmitter release from parasympathetic neurons in the mouse bladder. J Neurosci 16:4155–4161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  715. 715.
    Wazir R, Luo DY, Tian Y, Yue X, Li H, Wang KJ (2013) The purinergic component of human bladder smooth muscle cells' proliferation and contraction under physiological stretch. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 437:256–260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  716. 716.
    Webb HE, Chew-Lim M, Jagelman S, Oaten SW, Pathak A, Suckling AJ, MacKenzie A (1978) Semliki forest virus infections in mice as a model for studying acute and chronic CNS virus infections in man. In: Clifford Rose F (ed) Clinical neuroimmunology. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 369–390Google Scholar
  717. 717.
    Weetman DF, Turner N (1977) The effects of ATP-receptor blocking agents on the response to the guinea-pig isolated bladder preparation to hyoscine-resistant nerve stimulation. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 228:10–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  718. 718.
    Welford LA, Cusack NJ, Hourani SMO (1987) The structure–activity relationships of ectonucleotidases and of excitatory P2-purinoceptors: evidence that dephosphorylation of ATP analogues reduces pharmacological potency. Eur J Pharmacol 141:123–130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  719. 719.
    Werkström V, Andersson KE (2005) ATP- and adenosine-induced relaxation of the smooth muscle of the pig urethra. BJU Int 96:1386–1391PubMedGoogle Scholar
  720. 720.
    Werkström V, Persson K, Andersson K-E (1997) NANC transmitters in the female pig urethra — localization and modulation of release via α2-adrenoceptors and potassium channels. Br J Pharmacol 121:1605–1612PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  721. 721.
    Westfall DP, Fedan JS, Colby J, Hogaboom GK, O'Donnell JP (1983) Evidence for a contribution by purines to the neurogenic response of the guinea-pig urinary bladder. Eur J Pharmacol 87:415–422PubMedGoogle Scholar
  722. 722.
    Westfall TD, Kennedy C, Sneddon P (1997) The ecto-ATPase inhibitor ARL 67156 enhances parasympathetic neurotransmission in the guinea-pig urinary bladder. Eur J Pharmacol 329:169–173PubMedGoogle Scholar
  723. 723.
    Wiklund NP, Gustafsson LE (1986) Neuromodulation by adenine nucleotides, as indicated by experiments with inhibitors of nucleotide inactivation. Acta Physiol Scand 126:217–223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  724. 724.
    Wiklund NP, Gustafsson LE (1988) Indications for P2-purinoceptor subtypes in guinea pig smooth muscle. Eur J Pharmacol 148:361–370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  725. 725.
    Wu C, Bayliss M, Newgreen D, Mundy AR, Fry CH (1999) A comparison of the mode of action of ATP and carbachol on isolated human detrusor smooth muscle. J Urol 162:1840v–1847vGoogle Scholar
  726. 726.
    Wu C, Gui GP, Fry CH (2011) Intracellular Ca2+ regulation and electrophysiolgical properties of bladder urothelium subjected to stretch and exogenous agonists. Cell Calcium 49:395–399PubMedGoogle Scholar
  727. 727.
    Wu C, Sui GP, Fry CH (2004) Purinergic regulation of guinea pig suburothelial myofibroblasts. J Physiol 559:231–243PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  728. 728.
    Wu C, Wallis WRJ, Fry CH (1995) Purinergic activation induces a transient rise of intracellular Ca2+ in isolated human detrusor myocytes. J Physiol 489:136P–137PGoogle Scholar
  729. 729.
    Wuest M, Morgenstern K, Graf EM, Braeter M, Hakenberg OW, Wirth MP, Ravens U (2005) Cholinergic and purinergic responses in isolated human detrusor in relation to age. J Urol 173:2182–2189PubMedGoogle Scholar
  730. 730.
    Wyndaele JJ, De Wachter S (2003) The basics behind bladder pain: a review of data on lower urinary tract sensations. Int J Urol 10:S49–S55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  731. 731.
    Xiao H, Si LY, Liu W, Li N, Meng G, Yang N, Chen X, Zhou YG, Shen HY (2013) The effects of adenosine A2A receptor knockout on renal interstitial fibrosis in a mouse model of unilateral ureteral obstruction. Acta Histochem 115:315–319PubMedGoogle Scholar
  732. 732.
    Yamada S, Yoshida A, Kageyama A, Mori F, Ito Y (2009) Muscarinic and purinergic receptors in the rat bladder are altered by chemically-induced cystitis. Neurourol Urodyn 28:825–826Google Scholar
  733. 733.
    Yang SJ, An JY, Shim JO, Park CH, Huh IH, Sohn UD (2000) The mechanism of contraction by 2-chloroadenosine in cat detrusor muscle cells. J Urol 163:652–658PubMedGoogle Scholar
  734. 734.
    Yeh CH, Chiang HS, Chien CT (2010) Hyaluronic acid ameliorates bladder hyperactivity via the inhibition of H2O2-enhanced purinergic and muscarinic signaling in the rat. Neurourol Urodyn 29:765–770PubMedGoogle Scholar
  735. 735.
    Yiangou Y, Facer P, Ford A, Brady C, Wiseman O, Fowler CJ, Anand P (2001) Capsaicin receptor VR1 and ATP-gated ion channel P2X3 in human urinary bladder. BJU Int 87:774–779PubMedGoogle Scholar
  736. 736.
    Yokota T, Yamaguchi O (1996) Changes in cholinergic and purinergic neurotransmission in pathologic bladder of chronic spinal rabbit. J Urol 156:1862–1866PubMedGoogle Scholar
  737. 737.
    Yokoyama O, Tanaka I, Kusukawa N, Yamauchi H, Ito H, Aoki Y, Oyama N, Miwa Y, Akino H (2011) Antimuscarinics suppress adenosine triphosphate and prostaglandin E2 release from urothelium with potential improvement in detrusor overactivity in rats with cerebral infarction. J Urol 185:2392–2397PubMedGoogle Scholar
  738. 738.
    Yoshida A, Kageyama A, Fujino T, Nozawa Y, Yamada S (2010) Loss of muscarinic and purinergic receptors in urinary bladder of rats with hydrochloric acid-induced cystitis. Urology 76:1017–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  739. 739.
    Yoshida M, Miyamae K, Iwashita H, Otani M, Inadome A (2004) Management of detrusor dysfunction in the elderly: changes in acetylcholine and adenosine triphosphate release during aging. Urology 63:17–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  740. 740.
    Yoshida M, Nagata T, Masunaga K, Inadome A, Miyamoto Y, Haba T, Kudoh J (2011) Contribution of non-neuronal adenosine triphosphate release from bladder mucosa to detrusor overactivity in hydrochloric acid (HCL)-induced cystitis rats. Eur Urol Suppl 10:257–258Google Scholar
  741. 741.
    Yoshimura N (1999) Bladder afferent pathway and spinal cord injury: possible mechanisms inducing hyperreflexia of the urinary bladder. Prog Neurobiol 57:583–606PubMedGoogle Scholar
  742. 742.
    Yoshimura N, de Groat WC (1997) Plasticity of Na+ channels in afferent neurones innervating rat urinary bladder following spinal cord injury. J Physiol 503:269–276PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  743. 743.
    Yoshimura N, de Groat WC (1999) Increased excitability of afferent neurons innervating rat urinary bladder after chronic bladder inflammation. J Neurosci 19:4644–4653PubMedGoogle Scholar
  744. 744.
    Yoshimura N, Kaiho Y, Miyazato M, Yunoki T, Tai C, Chancellor MB, Tyagi P (2008) Therapeutic receptor targets for lower urinary tract dysfunction. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 377:437–448PubMedGoogle Scholar
  745. 745.
    Young JS, Matharu R, Carew MA, Fry CH (2012) Inhibition of stretching-evoked ATP release from bladder mucosa by anticholinergic agents. BJU Int 110:E397–E401PubMedGoogle Scholar
  746. 746.
    Young JS, Meng E, Cunnane TC, Brain KL (2008) Spontaneous purinergic neurotransmission in the mouse urinary bladder. J Physiol 586:5743–5755PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  747. 747.
    Yu Y, de Groat WC (2008) Sensitization of pelvic afferent nerves in the in vitro rat urinary bladder–pelvic nerve preparation by purinergic agonists and cyclophosphamide pretreatment. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 294:F1146–F1156PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  748. 748.
    Yu Y, de Groat WC (2013) Nitric oxide modulates bladder afferent nerve activity in the in vitro urinary bladder–pelvic nerve preparation from rats with cyclophosphamide induced cystitis. Brain Res 1490:83–94PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  749. 749.
    Yu W, Hill WG (2011) Defining protein expression in the urothelium: a problem of more than transitional interest. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 301:F932–F942PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  750. 750.
    Yu W, Robson SC, Hill WG (2011) Expression and distribution of ectonucleotidases in mouse urinary bladder. PLoS One 6:e18704PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  751. 751.
    Yu W, Sun X, Robson SC, Hill WG (2013) Extracellular UDP enhances P2X-mediated bladder smooth muscle contractility via P2Y6 activation of the phospholipase C/inositol trisphosphate pathway. FASEB J 27:1895–1903PubMedGoogle Scholar
  752. 752.
    Yu W, Zeidel ML, Hill WG (2012) Cellular expression profile for interstitial cells of Cajal in bladder — a cell often misidentified as myocyte or myofibroblast. PLoS One 7:e48897PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  753. 753.
    Zagorodnyuk VP, Costa M, Brookes SJ (2006) Major classes of sensory neurons to the urinary bladder. Auton Neurosci 126–127:390–397PubMedGoogle Scholar
  754. 754.
    Zar MA, Iravani MM, Luheshi GN (1990) Effect of nifedipine on the contractile responses of the isolated rat bladder. J Urol 143:835–839PubMedGoogle Scholar
  755. 755.
    Zderic SA, Plzak JE, Duckett JW, Snyder HM III, Wein AJ, Levin RM (1990) Effect of pregnancy on rabbit urinary bladder physiology: 1. Effects of extracellular calcium. Pharmacology 41:124–129PubMedGoogle Scholar
  756. 756.
    Zhang SX, Kobayashi T, Okada T, Garcia del Saz E, Seguchi H (1991) Alkaline phosphatase, 5′-nucleotidase and magnesium-dependent adenosine triphosphatase activities in the transitional epithelium of the rat urinary bladder. Histol Histopathol 6:309–315PubMedGoogle Scholar
  757. 757.
    Zhang S, Lv JW, Yang P, Yu Q, Pang J, Wang Z, Guo H, Liu S, Hu J, Li J, Leng J, Huang Y, Ye Z, Wang CY (2012) Loss of dicer exacerbates cyclophosphamide-induced bladder overactivity by enhancing purinergic signaling. Am J Pathol 181:937–946PubMedGoogle Scholar
  758. 758.
    Zhao M, Bo X, Neely CF, Burnstock G (1996) Characterization and autoradiographic localization of [3H]α, β-methylene ATP binding sites in cat urinary bladder. Gen Pharmacol 27:509–512PubMedGoogle Scholar
  759. 759.
    Zhao Y, Wein AJ, Levin RM (1993) Role of calcium in mediating the biphasic contraction of the rabbit urinary bladder. Gen Pharmacol 24:727–731PubMedGoogle Scholar
  760. 760.
    Zhong Y, Banning AS, Cockayne DA, Ford APDW, Burnstock G, McMahon SB (2003) Bladder and cutaneous sensory neurons of the rat express different functional P2X receptors. Neuroscience 120:667–675PubMedGoogle Scholar
  761. 761.
    Zhong Y, Dunn PM, Burnstock G (2000) Guinea-pig sympathetic neurons express varying proportions of two distinct P2X receptors. J Physiol 523:391–402PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  762. 762.
    Zhong Y, Dunn PM, Xiang Z, Bo X, Burnstock G (1998) Pharmacological and molecular characterisation of P2X purinoceptors in rat pelvic ganglion neurons. Br J Pharmacol 125:771–781PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  763. 763.
    Ziganshin AU, Hoyle CHV, Bo X, Lambrecht G, Mutschler E, Bäumert HG, Burnstock G (1993) PPADS selectively antagonizes P2X-purinoceptor-mediated responses in the rabbit urinary bladder. Br J Pharmacol 110:1491–1495PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  764. 764.
    Ziganshin AU, Hoyle CHV, Ziganshina LE, Burnstock G (1994) Effects of cyclopiazonic acid on contractility and ecto-ATPase activity in guinea-pig urinary bladder and vas deferens. Br J Pharmacol 113:669–674PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  765. 765.
    Ziganshin AU, Ralevic V, Burnstock G (1995) Contractility of urinary bladder and vas deferens after sensory denervation by capsaicin treatment of newborn rats. Br J Pharmacol 114:166–170PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  766. 766.
    Ziganshin AU, Ziganshina LE, Hoyle CHV, Burnstock G (1995) Effects of divalent cations and La3+ on contractility and ecto-ATPase activity in the guinea-pig urinary bladder. Br J Pharmacol 114:632–639PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  767. 767.
    Zimmermann H (1978) Turnover of adenine nucleotides in cholinergic synaptic vesicles of the Torpedo electric organ. Neuroscience 3:827–836PubMedGoogle Scholar
  768. 768.
    Zimmermann H (2006) Ectonucleotidases in the nervous system. Novartis Foundation Symposium 276 Purinergic signalling in neuron–glial interactions. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, pp 113–128Google Scholar
  769. 769.
    Zinck ND, Downie JW (2008) IB4 afferent sprouting contributes to bladder dysfunction in spinal rats. Exp Neurol 213:293–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  770. 770.
    Zoubek J, Somogyi GT, de Groat WC (1993) A comparison of inhibitory effects of neuropeptide Y on rat urinary bladder, urethra, and vas deferens. Am J Physiol 265:R537–R543PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Autonomic Neuroscience CentreUniversity College Medical SchoolLondonUK
  2. 2.Department of PharmacologyUniversity of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations