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Purinergic Signalling

, Volume 8, Issue 3, pp 359–373 | Cite as

Vesicular and conductive mechanisms of nucleotide release

  • Eduardo R. LazarowskiEmail author
Review

Abstract

Extracellular nucleotides and nucleosides promote a vast range of physiological responses, via activation of cell surface purinergic receptors. Virtually all tissues and cell types exhibit regulated release of ATP, which, in many cases, is accompanied by the release of uridine nucleotides. Given the relevance of extracellular nucleotide/nucleoside-evoked responses, understanding how ATP and other nucleotides are released from cells is an important physiological question. By facilitating the entry of cytosolic nucleotides into the secretory pathway, recently identified vesicular nucleotide and nucleotide–sugar transporters contribute to the exocytotic release of ATP and UDP-sugars not only from endocrine/exocrine tissues, but also from cell types in which secretory granules have not been biochemically characterized. In addition, plasma membrane connexin hemichannels, pannexin channels, and less-well molecularly defined ATP conducting anion channels have been shown to contribute to the release of ATP (and UTP) under a variety of conditions.

Keywords

ATP release Extracellular nucleotides UDP-sugars Exocytosis VNUT Connexins Pannexins 

Abbreviations

SLC

Solute carrier

VNUT

Vesicular nucleotide transporter

Panx

Pannexin

Cx

Connexin

siRNA

Small interfering RNA

shRNA

Short hairpin RNA

BAPTA

1,2-Bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid

DIDS

4,4′-Diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2′-disulfonate

NBPP

5-Nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid

fMLP

Formyl-Met-Leu-Phe

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Lisa Brown for editorial assistance of the manuscript. Supported by National Institute of Health grant P01-HL034322.

Conflict of interest statement

The author has no potential conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of MedicineUniversity of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA
  2. 2.Cystic Fibrosis/Pulmonary Research & Treatment CenterUniversity of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA

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