Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Organisationales Commitment und seine Einflussfaktoren: Eine qualitative Metaanalyse

Zusammenfassung

Organisationales Commitment ist im Zuge der zunehmenden Individualisierung und Flexibilisierung von Arbeitsbeziehungen zu einer zentralen Referenzgröße für die Managementforschung und -praxis geworden. Neben den Effekten des Commitment für den betriebswirtschaftlichen Erfolg von Unternehmen wurde in jüngerer Zeit eine wachsende Zahl möglicher Einflussfaktoren empirisch untersucht. Der vorliegende Beitrag fasst den aktuellen Forschungsstand zu den wichtigsten Einflussfaktoren für affektives, normatives und kalkuliertes Organisationales Commitment in Anlehnung an die grundlegenden Arbeiten von Meyer und Allen (1991) zusammen. Grundlage dafür bilden drei vorliegende quantitative Metaanalysen sowie eine ergänzende qualitative Metaanalyse zu 61 aktuellen Studien. Es zeigt sich, dass sowohl mit affektivem als auch normativem Commitment Persönlichkeitsfaktoren, wie Selbstbewusstsein, Kompetenzüberzeugung und Systemvertrauen korrelieren. Unter den arbeitsbezogenen Faktoren besteht der stärkste Zusammenhang zwischen affektivem Commitment und einer wahrgenommen Situationskontrolle und einem transformationalen Führungsstil, was direkt mit den organisationsbezogenen Faktoren, einer unterstützenden Personalpolitik und der Betonung interpersoneller, distributiver oder prozessualer Gerechtigkeit im Unternehmen, korrespondiert. Für kalkuliertes Commitment fanden sich zu den arbeitsbezogenen Einflussfaktoren hauptsächlich Korrelationen, die denen von affektivem und normativem Commitment entgegengesetzt sind. Entgegen der Erwartung ist die Landeskultur kein entscheidender Moderator.

Abstract

It is a result from increasing individualism and the ongoing deregulation of formal and psychological work contracts that organizational commitment has become one of the key concepts in management research and practice. There is growing empirical research not only on the effects of commitment on organizational performance, but also on its personal, organizational and contextual antecedents. In this literature review the state of the art in commitment-related research is presented and discussed. We refer to the grounding work of Meyer and Allen (1991) and their distinction between affective, normative, and continuance commitment. The paper is based on three meta-analyses and an additional systematic review of 61 empirical studies. They provide evidence for the fact that there is a shift from demographic to differential personality factors in research. Affective commitment and normative commitment can be explained by individual differences (e.g., self-efficacy and trustfulness), work environment (e.g., transformational leadership and controllability), and organisational characteristics (e.g., supporting human resources policy and interpersonal, distributive, and procedural justice). Continuance commitment has been found negatively correlated with affective and normative commitment. Significant antecedents are the same work-related factors as for the two other forms of commitment, but the coefficients are inverse. Contrary to former results, national culture has no effect neither on the link between other antecedents and commitment, nor on commitment itself.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Literatur

  1. 1.

    Abbot GN, White FA, Charles MA (2005) Linking values and organizational commitment: a correlational and experimental investigation in two organizations. J Occup Organ Psych 78:531–551

  2. 2.

    Abbott A (1990) Conceptions of time and events in social science methods: causal and narrative approaches. Hist Method 23:140–150

  3. 3.

    Adams J (1965) Inequity and social exchange. In: Berkowitz L (Hrsg) Advances in Experimental Social Psychology. Academic Press, New York, S 267–299

  4. 4.

    Addae HM, Parboteeah KP, Velinor N (2008) Role stressors and organizational commitment: public sector employment in St Lucia. Int J Manpower 29(6):567–582

  5. 5.

    Agarwala T (2003) Innovative human resource practices and organizational commitment: an empirical investigation. Int J Hum Resour Man 14:175–197

  6. 6.

    Ahmad KZ, Bakar RA (2003) The association between training and organizational commitment among white-collar workers in Malaysia. Int J Train Dev 7:166–185

  7. 7.

    Allen DG, Shore LM, Griffeth RW (2003) The role of perceived organizational support and supportive human resource practices in the turnover process. J Manage 29:99–118

  8. 8.

    Allen NJ, Meyer JP (1990) The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance and normative commitment to the organization. J Occup Psych 63:1–18

  9. 9.

    Allen NJ, Meyer JP (1996) Affective, continuance and normative commitment to the organization: an examination of construct validity. J Vocat Behav 49:252–276

  10. 10.

    Arnold JA, Arad S, Rhoades JA, Drasgow F (2000) The empowering leadership questionnaire: the construction and validation of a new scale for measuring leader behaviors. J Organ Behav 21(3):249–269

  11. 11.

    Atteslander P (2000) Methoden der empirischen Sozialforschung, 9. Auflage. Erich Schmidt, Berlin

  12. 12.

    Bartlett KR, Kang D (2004) Training and organizational commitment among nurses following industry and organizational change in New Zealand and the United States. Human Res Dev Int 7:423–440

  13. 13.

    Becker G (1964) Human Capital. Columbia University Press, New York

  14. 14.

    Becker H (1960) Notes on the concept of commitment. Am J Sociol 66:32–40

  15. 15.

    Becker TE (1992) Foci and bases of commitment: are they distinctions worth making? Acad Manage J 35:232–244

  16. 16.

    Bock G-W, Ng W-L, Shin Y (2008) The effect of a perceived leader’s influence on the motivation of the members of nonwork-related virtual communities. IEEE Trans Eng Manage 55(2):292–303

  17. 17.

    Böhm SA (2008) Organisationale Identifikation als Voraussetzung für eine erfolgreiche Unternehmens- entwicklung. Eine wissenschaftliche Analyse mit Ansatzpunkten für das Management. Gabler, Wiesbaden

  18. 18.

    Brockner J, Spreitzer G, Mishra A et al (2004) Perceived control as an antidote to the negative layoffs on survivors’ organizational commitment and job performance. Admin Sci Quart 49:76–100

  19. 19.

    Buchanan B (1974) Building organizational commitment: the socialization of managers in work organizations. Admin Sci Quart 19:533–546

  20. 20.

    Caldwell D, Chatman J, O’Reilly C (1990) Building organizational commitment: a multifirm study. J Occup Psych 63:245–261

  21. 21.

    Carmeli A (2005) Perceived external prestige, affective commitment, and citizenship behaviors. Organ Stud 26:443–464

  22. 22.

    Chang S-I (2008) Work role stressors and turnover intentions: a study of it personnel in South Korea. Z Personalforsch 22(3):272–290

  23. 23.

    Chen G, Goddard TG, Casper WJ (2004) Examination of the relationships among general and work-specific self-evaluations, work-related control beliefs, and job attitudes. J Appl Psychol 53:349–370

  24. 24.

    Chen H-F, Chen Y-C (2008) The impact of work redesign and psychological empowerment on organizational commitment in a changing environment. An example from Taiwan’s state-owned enterprises. Public Pers Manage 37(3):279–302

  25. 25.

    Chen LY (2004) Examining the effect of organization culture and leadership behaviors on organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and job performance at small and middle-sized firms of Taiwan. J Am Acad Bus September 2004:432–438

  26. 26.

    Chew J, Chan CCA (2008) Human resource practices, organizational commitment and intention to stay. Int J Manpower 29(6):503–522

  27. 27.

    Chinen K, Enomoto CE (2004) The impact of quality control circles and education on organizational commitment in northern Mexico assembly plants. Int J Manage 21:51–57

  28. 28.

    Cohen A (1991) Career stage as moderator of the relationships between organizational commitment and its outcomes: a meta-analysis. J Occup Psych 64:253–268

  29. 29.

    Cohen A (1992) Antecedents of organizational commitment across occupational groups: a meta-analysis. J Organ Behav 13:539–558

  30. 30.

    Cohen A (1993) Organizational commitment and turnover: a meta-analysis. Acad Manage J 36:1140–1157

  31. 31.

    Cohen A, Keren D (2008) Individual values and social exchange variables: examining their relationship to and mutual effect on in-role performance and organizational citizenship behavior. Group Organ Manage 33(4):425–452

  32. 32.

    Cohen J (1969) Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. Academic Press, New York

  33. 33.

    Cook J, Wall T (1980) New work attitude measures of trust, organizational commitment and personal need non-fulfilment. J Occup Psych 53(1):39–52

  34. 34.

    Culpepper RA, Gamble JE, Blubaugh MG (2004) Employee stock ownership plans and three-component commitment. J Occup Organ Psyc 77:155–170

  35. 35.

    Curry J, Mueller C, Price J et al (1986) On the causal ordering of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Acad Manage J 29:847–858

  36. 36.

    Deery SJ, Iverson RD (2005) Labor-management cooperation: antecedents and impact on organizational performance. Ind Labor Relat Rev 58:588–609

  37. 37.

    De Ridder JA (2004) Organizational communication and supportive employees. Human Res Manage J 14:20–30

  38. 38.

    Dunham RB, Grube JA, Castenada MB (1994) Organizational commitment: the utility of an integrative definition. J Appl Psychol 79:370–380

  39. 39.

    Eaton SC (2003) If you can use them: flexibility policies, organizational commitment, and perceived performance. Ind Relat 42:145–167

  40. 40.

    Eisenberger R, Cotterell N, Marvel J (1987) Reciprocation ideology. J Pers Soc Psychol 53:743–750

  41. 41.

    Eisenberger R, Fasolo P, Davis-Lamastro V (1990) Perceived organizational support and employee diligence, commitment and innovation. J Appl Psychol 75:51–59

  42. 42.

    Erben GS, Güneser AB (2007) The relationship between paternalistic leadership and organizational commitment: investigating the role of climate regarding ethics. J Bus Ethics 82:955–968

  43. 43.

    Etzioni A (1965) A Comparative Analysis of Complex Organizations: On Power, Involvement, and their Correlates. The Free Press, New York

  44. 44.

    Etzioni A (1973) Soziologie der Organisation. Juventa, München

  45. 45.

    Farrell D, Rusbult CE (1981) Exchange variables as predictors of job satisfaction, job commitment, and turnover: the impact of rewards, costs, alternatives, and investments. Organ Behav Hum Perf 27:78–95

  46. 46.

    Felfe J, Schmook R, Six B et al (2005) Commitment gegenüber Verleiher und Entleiher bei Zeitarbeitern. Z Personalpsychol 4:101–115

  47. 47.

    Gagnon MA, Michael JH (2004) Outcomes of perceived supervisor support for wood production employees. Forest Prod J 54(12):172–177

  48. 48.

    Gaither CA, Kahaleh AA, Doucette WR et al (2008) A modified model of pharmacists’ job stress: the role of organizational, extra-role, and individual factors on work-related outcomes. Res Soc Admin Pharm 4:231–243

  49. 49.

    Gallie D, Felstead A, Green F (2001) Employer policies and organizational commitment in Britain 1992–97. J Manage Stud 38:1081–1101

  50. 50.

    Gauger J (2000) Commitment-Management in Unternehmen: Am Beispiel des Mittleren Managements. Deutscher Universitäts-Verlag, Wiesbaden

  51. 51.

    Gmür M, Schwerdt B (2005) Der Beitrag des Personalmanagements zum Unternehmenserfolg. Eine Metaanalyse nach 20 Jahren Erfolgsfaktorenforschung. Z Personalforsch 19:221–251

  52. 52.

    Gong Y, Chang S (2008) Institutional antecedents and performance consequences of employment security and career advancement practices: evidence from the People’s Republic of China. Hum Resource Manage 47(1):33–48

  53. 53.

    Gould-Williams J (2003) The importance of HR practices and workplace trust in achieving superior performance: a study of public-sector organizations. Int J Hum Resource Manage 14:28–54

  54. 54.

    Graen GB, Novak MA, Sommerkamp P (1982) The effects of leader–member exchange and job design on productivity and satisfaction: testing a dual attachment model. Organ Behav Hum Perf 30(1):109–131

  55. 55.

    Guest D (1992) Employee Commitment and Control. In: Hartley JF, Stephenson GM (Hrsg) Employment Relations. Blackwell, Oxford

  56. 56.

    Haar JM, Spell CS (2004) Program knowledge and value of work-family practices and organizational commitment. Int J Hum Resource Manage 15:1040–1055

  57. 57.

    Hackett RD, Bycio P, Hausdorf PA (1994) Further assessments of Meyer and Allen’s (1991) 3-Component model of organizational commitment. J Appl Psychol 79:15–23

  58. 58.

    Hackman JR, Oldham GR (1980) Work Redesign. Addison Wesley, Reading, MA

  59. 59.

    Herrbach O, Mignorac K, Gatignon AL (2004) Exploring the role of perceived external prestige in managers’ turnover intentions. Int J Hum Resource Manage 15:1390–1407

  60. 60.

    Herzberg FW (1968) One more time: how do you motivate employees? Harvard Bus Rev 56(Jan–Feb):53–62

  61. 61.

    Ho W-H, Chang CS, Shih Y-L et al (2009) Effects of job rotation and role stress among nurses on job satisfaction and oganizational commitment. BMC Health Serv Res 9(8):1–10

  62. 62.

    Humphreys JH, Weyant LE, Sprague RD (2003) Organizational commitment: the roles of emotional and practical intellect within the leader, follower dyad. J Bus Manage 9:189–209

  63. 63.

    Hunter JE, Schmidt FL, Jackson GB (1982) Meta-Analysis. Cumulating Research Findings Accross Studies. Sage Publications, Beverly Hills

  64. 64.

    Irving GP, Meyer JP (1994) Reexamination of the met-expectations hypothesis: a longitudinal analysis. J Appl Psychol 79:937–949

  65. 65.

    Johnston MW, Parsuraman A, Futrell CM et al (1990) A longitudinal assessment of the impact of selected organizational influences on sales persons organizational commitment during early employment. J Marketing Res 27:333–344

  66. 66.

    Kagitcibasi C (1997) Individualism and Collectivism. In: Berry JW, Segall MH, Kagitcibasi C (Hrsg.) Handbook of Cross-Cultural Psychology Vol. 3, pp 1–50. Allyn & Bacon, Needham Heights, MA

  67. 67.

    Kent A, Chelladurai P (2001) Perceived transformational leadership, organizational commitment, and citizenship behavior: a case study in intercollegiate athletics. J Sport Manage 15:135–159

  68. 68.

    Kickul J (2001) Promises made, promises broken: an exploration of employee attraction and retention practices in small businesses. J Small Bus Manage 39:320–335

  69. 69.

    Kieser A (1995) Loyalität und Commitment. In: Kieser A, Reber G, Wunderer R (Hrsg) Handwörterbuch der Führung, 2. Auflage. Schäffer-Poeschel, Stuttgart, Sp. 1442–1456

  70. 70.

    Kim NY, Miller G (2008) Perceptions of the ethical climate in the Korean tourism industry. J Bus Ethics 82:941–954

  71. 71.

    Lambert SJ (2000) Added benefits: the link between work-life benefits and organizational citizenship behavior. Acad Manage J 43:801–815

  72. 72.

    Lee CH, Bruvold NT (2003) Creating value for employees: investment in employee development. Int J Hum Resource Manage 14:981–1000

  73. 73.

    Lersch P (1956) Aufbau der Person. Barth, München

  74. 74.

    Leung M-Y, Chong A, Ng ST et al (2004) Demystifying stakeholders’ commitment and its impacts on construction projects. Construct Manage Econ 22:701–715

  75. 75.

    Lines R (2004) Influence of participation in strategic change: resistance, organizational commitment and change goal achievement. J Change Manage 4:193–215

  76. 76.

    Lingard H, Lin J (2004) Career, family and work environment determinants of organizational commitment among women in the Australian construction industry. Construct Manage Econ 22:409–420

  77. 77.

    Loi R, Hang-yue N, Foley S (2004) The effect of professional identification on job attitudes: a study of lawyers in Hong Kong. Organ Anal 12:109–128

  78. 78.

    Maslow A (1954) Motivation and Personality. Harper, New York

  79. 79.

    Mathieu JE, Zajac DM (1990) A review and meta-analysis of the antecedents, correlates, and consequences of organizational commitment. Psychol Bull 108:171–194

  80. 80.

    McNeese-Smith DK (2001) A nursing shortage: building organizational commitment among nurses. J Healthcare Manage 46:173–186

  81. 81.

    Meyer JP, Allen NJ (1991) A three-component conceptualization of organizational commitment. Hum Resource Manage Rev 1:61–89

  82. 82.

    Meyer JP, Becker TE, Vandenberghe C (2004) Employee commitment and motivation. A conceptual analysis and integrative model. J Appl Psychol 89:991–1007

  83. 83.

    Meyer JP, Bobocel DR, Allen NJ (1991) Development of organizational commitment during the first year of employment: a longitudinal study of pre- and post-entry influences. J Manage 17:717–733

  84. 84.

    Meyer JP, Allen NJ, Smith CA (1993) Commitment to organizations and occupations: extension and test of a three-component conceptualization. J Appl Psych 78(4):538–551

  85. 85.

    Meyer JP, Herscovitch L (2001) Commitment in the workplace: toward a general model. Hum Resource Manage Rev 11:299–326

  86. 86.

    Meyer JP, Stanley DJ, Herscovitch L et al (2002) Affective, continuance and normative commitment to the organization: a meta-analysis of antecedents, correlates, and consequences. J Vocat Behav 61:20–52

  87. 87.

    Moideenkutty U, Blau G, Kumar R et al (2001) Perceived organizational support as a mediator of the relationship of perceived situational factors to affective organizational commitment. Appl Psychol 50:615–634

  88. 88.

    Markovits Y, Ullrich J, van Dick R et al (2008) Regulatory foci and organizational commitment. J Vocat Behav 73:485–489

  89. 89.

    Moser K (1996) Commitment in Organisationen. Huber, Bern, Göttingen, Toronto, Seattle

  90. 90.

    Mowday RT, Porter LW, Steers RM (1979) The measurement of organizational commitment. J Vocat Behav 74:224–247

  91. 91.

    Mowday RT, Porter LW, Steers RM (1982) Employee-Organization Linkages: The Psychology of Commitment, Absenteism, and Turnover. Academic Press, New York

  92. 92.

    Ng TWH, Feldman DC (2008) Can you get a better deal elsewhere? The effects of psychological contract replicability on organizational commitment over time. J Vocat Behav 73:268–277

  93. 93.

    Obeng K, Ugboro I (2003) Organizational commitment among public transit employees: an assessment study. J Transp Res Forum 57(3):83–98

  94. 94.

    Parnell JA, Crandall WR (2003) Propensity for participative decision-making, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behavior, and intentions to leave among egyptian managers. Multinatl Bus Rev 11:45–65

  95. 95.

    Payne SC, Huffman AH (2005) A longitudinal examination of the influence of mentoring on organizational commitment and turnover. Acad Manage J 48:158–168

  96. 96.

    Penrose ET (1959) The Theory of Growth of the Firm. Oxford University Press, New York

  97. 97.

    Porter LM, Steers RM, Mowday RT et al (1974) Organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and turnover among psychiatric technicians. J Appl Psychol 59:603–609

  98. 98.

    Pousette A, Jacobsson C, Thylefors I et al (2003) The role of feedback in swedish human service organizations. Commun Work Fam 6:245–268

  99. 99.

    Pratt MG (1998) To be or not to be. Central Questions in Organizational Identification. In Whetten AD, Godfrey PC (Hrsg) Identity in Organizations. Building Theory through Conversations. o. S., Thousand Oaks

  100. 100.

    Ramamoorthy N, Flood PC (2004) Gender and employee attitudes: the role of organizational justice perceptions. Brit J Manage 15:247–258

  101. 101.

    Randall DM (1990) The consequences of organizational commitment: methodological investigation. J Organ Behav 11:316–378

  102. 102.

    Rashid ZA, Sambasivan M, Johari J (2003) The influence of corporate culture and organizational commitment on performance. J Manage Dev 22:708–728

  103. 103.

    Rhoades L, Eisenberger R, Armeli S (2001) Affective commitment to the organization: the contribution of perceived organizational support. J Appl Psychol 86:825–836

  104. 104.

    Riketta M (2002) Attitudinal organizational commitment and job performance: a meta-analysis. J Organ Behav 23:257–266

  105. 105.

    Riketta M, Landerer A (2005) Does perceived threat to organizational status moderate the relation between organizational commitment and work behavior? Int J Manage 22:193–200

  106. 106.

    von Rosenstiel L (1992) Motivation von Mitarbeitern. In: von Rosenstiel L, Regnet E, Domsch M (Hrsg) Führung von Mitarbeitern, 5. Auflage. Schäffer-Poeschel, Stuttgart, S. 195–216

  107. 107.

    Rubenowitz S (1989) Management and Job Organization in Progressive Swedish Industries. University of Goteborg, Department of Psychology, Goteborg, Sweden

  108. 108.

    Rühli E (1995) Ressourcenmanagement – Strategischer Erfolg dank Kernkompetenzen. Die Unternehmung 49:91–105

  109. 109.

    Ruh H, Leisinger KM (2004) (Hrsg) Ethik im Management Ethik und Erfolg verbünden sich. Orell Füssli, Zürich

  110. 110.

    Sanders K, Dorenbosch L, de Reuver R (2006) The impact of individual and shared employee perceptions of HRM on affective commitment – considering climate strength. Pers Rev 37(4):412–425

  111. 111.

    Sanders III JE, Hopkins WE, Geroy GD (2004) Spirituality-leadership-commitment relationships in the workplace: An Exploratory Assessment. Academy of Management Best Conference Paper, MRS, S. A1–A6

  112. 112.

    San Martín S (2008) Relational and economic antecedents of organisational commitment. Pers Rev 37(6):589–608

  113. 113.

    Schmidt FL (1992) What do data really mean? research findings, meta-analysis, and cumulative knowledge in psychology. Am Psychol 47:1173–1181

  114. 114.

    Schwepker CH (2001) Ethical climate’s relationship to job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover in the sales force. J Bus Research 54:39–52

  115. 115.

    Segler T, Karst K, Gruber KF (2000) Commitment Management: Unternehmensstrategien erfolgreich umsetzen durch Commitment Management. Spinger, Berlin

  116. 116.

    Self DR, Holt DT, Schaninger WS (2005) Work-group and organizational support: a test of distinct dimensions. J Occup Organ Psych 78:133–140

  117. 117.

    Sennett R (1998) The Corrosion of Character. Norton, New York

  118. 118.

    Shaffer MA, Harrision DA, Gilley KM et al (2001) Struggling for balance amid turbulence on international assignments: work-family conflict, support and commitment. J Manage 27:99–121

  119. 119.

    Siegel PA, Brockner J, Fishman AY et al (2005) The moderating influence of procedural fairness on the relationship between work-life-conflict and organizational commitment. J Appl Psychol 90:13–24

  120. 120.

    Simons T, Roberson Q (2003) Why managers should care about fairness: the effects of aggregate justice perceptions on organizational outcomes. J Appl Psych 88(3):432–443

  121. 121.

    Shaffer MA, Harrison DA, Gilley KM, Luk DM (2001) Struggling for balance amid turbulence on international assignments: work–family conflict, support and commitment. J Manage 27(1):99–121

  122. 122.

    Solow R (1956) A contribution to the theory of economic growth. Q J Econ 70:65–94

  123. 123.

    Somers MJ (1995) Organizational commitment, turnover and absenteeism: an examination of direct and interaction effects. J Organ Behav 16(1):49–58

  124. 124.

    Stebbins RA (1970) On misunderstanding the concept of commitment: a theoretical clarification. Soc Forces 48:526–529

  125. 125.

    Steinle C, Ahlers F, Riechmann C (1999) Management by Commitment: Möglichkeiten und Grenzen einer „selbstverpflichtenden“ Führung von Mitarbeitern. Z Personalforsch 13:221–245

  126. 126.

    Stephens RD, Dawley DD, Stephens DB (2004) Director role potential as antecedents of normative and affective commitment on nonprofit boards. Organ Anal 12:395–413

  127. 127.

    Steyrer J, Schiffinger M, Lang R (2008) Organizational commitment – a missing link between leadership behavior and organizational performance? Scand J Manage 24:364–374

  128. 128.

    Stiglitz J (2006) Die Chancen der Globalisierung. Siedler, München

  129. 129.

    Struß N (2003) Führungswechsel im Management: Eine empirische Analyse innovativer Wachstumsunternehmen. Deutscher Universitäts-Verlag, Wiesbaden

  130. 130.

    Süß S (2006) Commitment freier Mitarbeiter: Erscheinungsformen und Einflussmöglichkeiten am Beispiel von IT-Freelancern. Z Personalforsch 20:255–275

  131. 131.

    Tajfel H (1978) Differentiation Between Social Groups. Academic Press, London

  132. 132.

    Tajfel H, Turner JC (1986) The Social Identity Theory of Intergroup Behavior. In: Worchel S, Austin WG (Hrsg) Psychology of Intergroup Relations, Nr. 2. Nelson-Hall, Chicago, S. 7–24

  133. 133.

    Tett RP, Meyer JP (1993) Job satisfaction, organizational commitment, turnover intention and turnover. Path analysis based on metaanalytic findings. Pers Psychol 46:259–293

  134. 134.

    Thatcher JB, Stephina LP, Boyle RJ (2003) Turnover of information technology workers: examining empirically the influence of attitudes, job characteristics, and external markets. J Manage Inform Syst 19:231–261

  135. 135.

    Thompson CA, Jahn EW, Kopelmann RE et al (2004) Perceived organizational family support: a longitudinal and multilevel analysis. J Manage Iss 17:545–565

  136. 136.

    Van Dick R (2004) Commitment und Identifikation mit Organisationen. Huber, Göttingen, Bern, Toronto, Seattle

  137. 137.

    Van Kippenberg D (2000) Work motivation and performance: a social identity perspective. Appl Psychol 49:357–371

  138. 138.

    Vinchur AJ, Schippmann JS, Switzer III FS et al (1998) A meta-analytic review of predictors of job performance for salespeople. J Appl Psychol 83:586–597

  139. 139.

    Vitell SJ, Singhapakdi A (2008) The role of ethics institutionalization in influencing organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and esprit de corps. J Bus Ethics 81:343–353

  140. 140.

    Wagner JA (1995) Studies of individualism-collectivism: effects on cooperation in groups. Acad Manage J 38(1):152–172

  141. 141.

    Wang L, Bishop JW, Chen X et al (2002) Collectivist orientation as a predictor of affective organizational commitment: a study conducted in China. Int J Organ Anal 10:226–239

  142. 142.

    Wasti SA (2003) The influence of cultural values on antecedents of organizational commitment: an individual-level analysis. Appl Psychol 52:533–554

  143. 143.

    Wasti SA, Can Ö (2008) Affective and normative commitment to organization, supervisor, and coworkers: do collectivist values matter? J Vocat Behav 73(3):404–413

  144. 144.

    Weaver GR, Trevino LK (2001) Outcomes of organizational ethics programs: influences of perceived values, compliance, and distrust orientations. Acad Manage Proc SIM:B1–B6

  145. 145.

    Weeks WA, Loe TW, Chonko LB et al (2004) The effect of perceived ethical climate on the search for sales force excellence. J Pers Sell Sale Manage 24:199–214

  146. 146.

    Westphal JD, Zajac EJ (1997) Defections from the inner circle: social exchange, reciprocity, and the diffusion of board independence in US corporations. Admin Sci Quart 42:161–183

  147. 147.

    Wiener Y (1982) Commitment in organizations. A normative view. Acad Manage J 72:418–428

  148. 148.

    Wiener Y, Vardi Y (1980) Relationships between job, organization, and career commitments and work outcomes: an integrative approach. Organ Behav Hum Perf 26:81–96

  149. 149.

    Williams LJ, Hazer JT (1986) Antecedents and consequences of satisfaction and commitment in turnover models: a reanalysis using latent variable structural equation methods. J Appl Psychol 71:219–231

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Ariane Westphal.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Westphal, A., Gmür, M. Organisationales Commitment und seine Einflussfaktoren: Eine qualitative Metaanalyse . J Betriebswirtsch 59, 201–229 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11301-009-0054-x

Download citation

Schlagworte

  • Organisationales Commitment
  • Einflussvariablen
  • Qualitative Metaanalyse

Keywords

  • Organizational commitment
  • Antecedents
  • Literature review