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# A survey on pickup and delivery problems

Part II: Transportation between pickup and delivery locations

## Abstract

This paper is the second part of a comprehensive survey on routing problems involving pickups and deliveries. Basically, two problem classes can be distinguished. The first part dealt with the transportation of goods from the depot to linehaul customers and from backhaul customers to the depot. The second part now considers all those problems where goods are transported between pickup and delivery locations, denoted as Vehicle Routing Problems with Pickups and Deliveries (VRPPD). These are the Pickup and Delivery Vehicle Routing Problem (PDVRP – unpaired pickup and delivery points), the classical Pickup and Delivery Problem (PDP – paired pickup and delivery points), and the Dial-A-Ride Problem (DARP – passenger transportation between paired pickup and delivery points and user inconvenience taken into consideration). Single as well as multi vehicle mathematical problem formulations for all three VRPPD types are given, and the respective exact, heuristic, and metaheuristic solution methods are discussed.

## Zusammenfassung

Der vorliegende Artikel ist Teil II einer umfassenden Überblicksarbeit in zwei Teilen über pickup and delivery Probleme. Grundsätzlich können zwei Problemklassen unterschieden werden. Der erste Teil dieser Arbeit beschäftigte sich mit dem Transport von Gütern von einem Depot zu Auslieferungs-Kunden (linehaul customers) und von Rückladungs-Kunden (backhaul customers) zu einem Depot. Der zweite Teil behandelt nun all jene Probleme, die sich mit dem Transport zwischen Abhol- und Auslieferungsorten befassen, im Folgenden als Vehicle Routing Problems with Pickups and Deliveries (VRPPD) bezeichnet. Diese Problemklasse umfasst das Pickup and Delivery Vehicle Routing Problem , ungepaarte Abhol- und Auslieferungsorte, das klassische Pickup and Delivery (PDP), gepaarte Abhol- und Auslierferungsorte, und das Dial-A-Ride Problem (DARP), Personentransport zwischen gepaarten Abhol- und Ablieferungsorten unter Berück- sichtigung von serviceorientierten Kriterien. Die jeweiligen Problemtypen werden zuerst anhand von mathema- tischen Einfahrzeug- und Mehrfahrzeugproblemformulierungen definiert. Im Anschluss werden die in der Literatur beschriebenen Lösungsmethoden diskutiert.

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Parragh, S.N., Doerner, K.F. & Hartl, R.F. A survey on pickup and delivery problems . Journal für Betriebswirtschaft 58, 81–117 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11301-008-0036-4

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### Keywords

• Pickup and delivery vehicle routing
• Pickup and delivery problem
• Dial-a-ride problem
• Transportation
• Survey

### Schlagworte

• Tourenplanung
• Vehicle Routing mit Pickups und Deliveries
• Dial-a-Ride Problem
• Überblicksartikel