Advertisement

Journal für Betriebswirtschaft

, Volume 56, Issue 2, pp 67–104 | Cite as

Werbewirkung durch Imagery-Processing

  • Heribert GierlEmail author
  • Sandra Reich
State-of-the-Art-Artikel

Zusammenfassung

Die Frage, warum bestimmte Informationen oder Werbemittel mehr und andere weniger Überzeugungskraft aufweisen, beschäftigt die Marketingforschung und verwandte Gebiete schon seit geraumer Zeit. Eine dieser Thematik zuzuordnende Forschungsrichtung, die in den letzten zwanzig Jahren eine Forschungstradition entwickelte, ist die Imagery-Forschung. Autoren, die sich dieser Forschungsrichtung zuwenden, erklären die Wirkung von Informationen damit, dass die Elemente in dieser Information Gedächtnisinhalte oder Imaginationen (Fantasien bzw. Vorstellungen) bei den Rezipienten auslösen, die ihrerseits die Bewertung des relevanten Meinungs- oder Werbeobjekts beeinflussen. In diesem Beitrag wird zunächst dargestellt, welche Hypothesen im Mittelpunkt der neueren Imagery-Forschung stehen. Der Nutzen dieser Überlegungen besteht zum Beispiel für die Werbepraxis darin, dass konkrete Hinweise für die Werbegestaltung gegeben werden. Anschließend wird der Stand der empirischen Forschung zu diesen Hypothesen vorgestellt. Hier zeigt sich, dass die empirischen Erkenntnisse hinter dem Stand der theoretischen Forschung zurückgeblieben sind. Am Ende dieser Abhandlung werden Vorschläge unterbreitet, wie die theoretischen Überlegungen einer weitergehenden Analyse unterzogen werden können.

Schlüsselwörter

Imagery-Processing Mentale Simulation Mentales Image Imagery-Instruktion Vividness Werbewirkung 

Abstract

The question of why information or advertisements are more or less persuasive represents a broad field of interest in consumer research and similar disciplines. One direction within this field is research on imagery processing, which has been analysed repeatedly over the last two decades. This theory describes the antecedents and consequences of activating mental images in subjects. In this article, we present the main hypotheses of imagery research, which provide helpful indications regarding advertising concepts for marketing practitioners. Furthermore, we discuss the state of empirical research on these considerations and find that empirical research lags behind the state of theoretical research. Therefore, we present suggestions as to how the hypotheses could be analysed further in future research.

Keywords

Imagery processing mental simulation mental image imagery instruction vividness advertising effectiveness 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Alesandrini KL, Sheikh AA (1983) Research on imagery: Implications for advertising. In: Sheikh AA (Hrsg) Imagery: Current theory, research, and application. Wiley, New York, S 535–556Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Anand P, Sternthal B (1987) Resource matching as an explanation for message persuasion. In: Caferrata P, Tybout A (Hrsg) Perspectives on the affective and cognitive effects of advertising. Lexington Books, Lexington, S 135–159Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Anderson CA (1983) Imagination and expectation: The effect of imagining behavorial scripts on personal intentions. J Pers Soc Psychol 45:293–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Atwood A (1989) Extending imagery research to sounds: Is a sound also worth a thousand words? In: Srull TK (Hrsg) Adv Consum Res 16:587–594Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Babin LA, Burns AC (1997) Effects of print Ad pictures and copy containing instructions to imagine on mental imagery that mediates attitudes. J Advertising 26(3):33–44Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Babin LA, Burns AC (1998) A modified scale for the measurement of communication evoked mental imagery. Psychol Market 15:261–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Babin LA, Burns AC, Biswas A (1992) A framework providing direction for research on communication effects of mental imagery-evoking advertising strategies. In: Sherry JF, Sternthal B (Hrsg) Adv Consum Res 19:621–628Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Baumgartner H, Sujan M, Bettman JR (1992) Autobiographical memories, affect, and consumer information processing. J Consum Psychol 1:53–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bless H, Schwarz N (1998) Context effects in political judgment: Assimilation and contrast effects of categorization processes. Eur J Soc Psychol 28:159–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bone PF, Ellen PS (1990) The effect of imagery processing and imagery content on behavioral intentions. In: Goldberg ME, Gorn G, Pollay RW (Hrsg) Adv Consum Res 17:449–454Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bone PF, Ellen PS (1992) The generation and consequences of communication-evoked imagery. J Consum Res 19:93–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Brown P, Keenan JM, Potts GR (1986) The self-reference effect with imagery encoding. J Pers Soc Psychol 51:897–906CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bruhn M (1995) Integrierte Unternehmenskommunikation. Ansatzpunkte für eine strategische und operative Umsetzung integrierter Kommunikationsarbeit, 2. Aufl. Schäffer-Poeschel, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Burns AC, Biswas A, Babin LA (1993) The operation of visual imagery as a mediator of advertising effects. J Advertising 22(2):71–85Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Caywood C, Schultz D, Wang P (1991) Integrated marketing communications. A survey of national consumer goods advertisers. American Association of Advertising Agencies, EvanstonGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chaiken S, Eagly AH (1983) Communication modality as a determinant of persuasion: The role of communicator salience. J Pers Soc Psychol 45:241–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Childers TL, Houston MJ, Heckler SE (1985) Measurement of individual differences in visual versus verbal information processing. J Consum Res 12:125–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chin WW (1998) The partial least squares approach to structural equation modeling. In: Marcoulides GA (Hrsg) Modern methods for business research. Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ, S 295–336Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cornoldi C, De Beni R, Cavedon A, Mazzoni G (1992) How can a vivid image be described? Characteristics influencing vividness judgments and the relationship between vividness and memory. J Ment Imagery 16(3–4):89–108Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Coulter RH, Zaltman G (1994) Using the Zaltman metaphor elicitation technique to understand brand images. In: Allen C, Roedder John D (Hrsg) Adv Consum Res 21:501–507Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Coulter RA, Zaltman G, Coulter KS (2001) Interpreting consumer perceptions of advertising: An application of the Zaltman metaphor elicitation technique. J Advertising 30(4):1–21Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dahl DW, Chattopadhyay A, Gorn GJ (1999) The use of visual mental imagery in new product design. J Marketing Res 36:18–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Duncan TR, Everett SE (1993) Client perceptions of integrated marketing communications. J Advertising 33(3):30–39Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ellen P, Bone P (1991) Measuring communication-evoked imagery processing. In: Holman RH, Solomon MR (Hrsg) Adv Consum Res 18:806–812Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Escalas JE (2004) Imagine yourself in the product. J Advertising 33(2):37–48Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Esch F-R (1997) Integrierte Kommunikation. Werbeforschung & Praxis 6:7–10Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Esch F-R, Thelen E (1997) Zum Suchverhalten in Läden – theoretische Grundlagen und empirische Ergebnisse. Der Markt 36:112–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Esch F-R (1998a) Wirkungen integrierter Kommunikation – Teil 1: Theoretische Grundlagen. Marketing ZFP 20:73–98Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Esch F-R (1998b) Wirkungen integrierter Kommunikation – Teil 2: Empirische Ergebnisse und Konsequenzen für das Marketing. Marketing ZFP 20:149–165Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Esch F-R (2001) Wirkung integrierter Kommunikation, 3. Aufl. Gabler, WiesbadenGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Fiedler K (2000) On mere considering: The subjective truth. In: Bless H, Forgas JP (Hrsg) The message within: The role of subjective experience in social cognition and behavior. Psychology Press, Philadelphia, S 13–36Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Fishbein M, Middlestadt SE (1995) Noncognitive effects on attitude formation and change: Fact or artifact? J Consum Psychol 4:181–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Green MC, Brock TC (2000) The role of transportation in the persuasiveness of public narratives. J Pers Soc Psychol 79:701–721CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Greenwald AG (1968) Cognitive learning: Cognitive responses to persuasion and attitude change. In: Greenwald AG, Brock TC, Ostrom TM (Hrsg) Psychological Foundations of Attitudes. Academic Press, San Diego, S 147–170Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gregory WL, Cialdini RB, Carpenter KM (1982) Self-relevant scenarios as mediators of likelihood estimates and compliance: Does imaging make it so? J Pers Soc Psychol 43:89–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hannah DB, Sternthal B (1984) Detecting and explaining the sleeper effect. J Consum Res 11:632–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Herr PM, Sherman SJ, Fazio RH (1983) On the consequences of priming: Assimilation and contrast effects. J Exp Soc Psychol 19:323–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Homer PM (1990) The mediating role of attitude toward the Ad: Some additional evidence. J Marketing Res 27:78–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hoyer WD, MacInnis DJ (2004) Consumer Behavior, 3rd edn. Houghton Mifflin, BostonGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kazdin AE (1974) The effect of model identity and fear-relevant similarity on covered modeling. Behav Ther 5:624–635CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Keller PA, Block LG (1997) Vividness effects: A resource-matching perspective. J Consum Res 24:295–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Keller PA, McGill A (1994) Differences in the relative influence of product attributes under alternative processing conditions: Attribute importance versus attribute ease of imagability. J Consum Psychol 3:29–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kieras D (1978) Beyond pictures and words: Alternative information-processing models for imagery effects in verbal memory. Psychol Bull 85:532–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kisielius J (1982) The role of memory in understanding advertising media effectiveness: The effect of imagery on consumer decision making. In: Mitchell A (Hrsg) Adv Consum Res 9:493–498Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kisielius J, Sternthal B (1984) Detecting and explaining vividness effects in attitudinal judgments. J Marketing Res 21:54–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Koehler DJ (1991) Explanation, imagination, and confidence in judgment. Psychol Bull 110:499–519CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kosslyn SM (1980) Image and mind. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Krishnamurthy P, Sujan M (1999) Retrospection versus anticipation: The role of the Ad under retrospective and anticipatory self-referencing. J Consum Res 26:55–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kroeber-Riel W (1986) Die inneren Bilder der Konsumenten: Messung, Verhaltenswirkung, Konsequenzen für das Marketing. Marketing ZFP 8:81–96Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kroeber-Riel W (1993) Bildkommunikation. Vahlen, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kroeber-Riel W, Weinberg P (2003) Konsumentenverhalten, 8. Aufl. Vahlen, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Lord CG (1987) Imagining self and others: Reply to brown, keenan, and potts. J Pers Soc Psychol 53:445–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Lutz KA, Lutz RJ (1978) Imagery eliciting strategies: Review and implications of research. In: Hunt HK (Hrsg) Adv Consum Res 5:611–620Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Lutz RJ (1985) Affective and cognitive antecedents of attitude toward the Ad: A conceptual framework. In: Alwitt LF, Mitchell AA (Hrsg) Psychological processes and advertising effects: Theory, research and application. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, S 45–63Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    MacInnis DJ, Price LL (1987) The role of imagery in information processing: Review and extensions. J Consum Res 13:473–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    MacKenzie SB, Lutz RJ, Belch GE (1986) The role of attitude toward the Ad as a mediator of advertising effectiveness: A test of competing explanations. J Marketing Res 23:130–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Marks DF (1973) Visual imagery differences in the recall of pictures. Brit J Psychol 64:17–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Mayer RE, Anderson RB (1991) Animations need narrations: An experimental test of a dual-coding hypothesis. J Educ Psychol 83:484–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    McGill A, Anand P (1989) The effect of vivid attributes on the evaluation of alternatives: The role of differential attention and cognitive elaboration. J Consum Res 16:188–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Meyers-Levy J, Malaviya P (1999) Consumers’ processing of persuasive advertisements: An integrative framework of persuasion theories. J Marketing 63(Special Issue):45–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Meyers-Levy J, Peracchio LA (1996) Moderators of the impact of self-reference on persuasion. J Consum Res 22:408–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Miller DW, Marks LJ (1992) Mental imagery and sound effects in radio commercials. J Advertising 21(4):83–93Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Miller DW, Stoica M (2003) Comparing the effects of a photograph versus artistic renditions of a beach scene in a direct-response print Ad for a Caribbean resort island: A mental imagery perspective. J Vacation Marketing 10(1):11–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Mitchell AA (1983) Cognitive processes initiated by exposure to advertising. In: Harris RJ (Hrsg) Information processing research in advertising. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, S 13–42Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Nisbett RE, Ross L (1980) Human interference: Strategies and shortcomings of social judgment. Appleton–Century–Crofts, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Paivio A (1979) Imagery and verbal processes. Erlbaum, HillsdaleGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Paivio A (1986) Mental representations: A dual coding approach. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Petty RE, Cacioppo JT, Heesacker M (1981) Effects of rhetorical questions on persuasion: A cognitive response analysis. J Pers Soc Psychol 41:432–440Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Petty RE, Cacioppo JT (1986) Communication and persuasion – central und peripheral routes to attitude change. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Plutchik R (1980) Emotion: A psychoevolutionary synthesis. Harper & Row, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Pylyshyn ZW (1981) The imagery debate: Analogue media versus tacit knowledge. Psychol Rev 88:16–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Quillian MR (1968) Semantic memory. In: Minsky M (Hrsg) Semantic information processing. Cambridge, S 227–270Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Richardson A (1969) Mental imagery. Routledge & Kegan Paul, LondonGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Ruge H-D (1988) Die Messung bildhafter Konsumerlebnisse. Entwicklung und Test einer neuen Meßmethode. Physica, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Schlosser AE (2003) Experience products in the virtual world: The role of goal and imagery in influencing attitudes versus purchase intentions. J Consum Res 30(2):184–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Sherman S, Cialdini R, Schwartzman D, Reynolds K (1985) Imagining can heighten or lower the perceived likelihood of contracting a disease: The mediating effects of ease of imagery. Pers Soc Psychol Bull 11:118–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Simon HA (1972) What is visual imagery? An information processing interpretation. In: Gregg LW (Hrsg) Cognition in learning and memory. Wiley, New York, S 183–204Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Sujan M, Bettman JR, Baumgartner H (1993) Influencing consumer judgments using autobiographical memories: A self-referencing perspective. J Marketing Res 30:422–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Swasy JL, Munch JM (1985) Examining the target of receiver elaborations: Rhetorical question effects on source processing and persuasion. J Consum Res 11:877–886CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Taylor SE, Thompson SC (1982) Stalking the elusive „vividness“ effect. Psychol Rev 89(2):155–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Taylor SE, Schneider SK (1989) Coping and the simulation of events. Soc Cognition 7(2):174–194Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Unnava HR, Agarwal S, Haugtvedt CP (1996) Interactive effects of presentation modality and message-generated imagery on recall of advertising information. J Consum Res 23(1):81–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Unnava HR, Burnkrant RE (1991) Effects of repeating varied Ad executions on brand name memory. J Marketing Res 28:406–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Walther E, Fiedler K, Nickel S (2003) The more we know, the better? Influences of prior knowledge on constructive biases in social judgment. Swiss J Psychol 62:219–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Zajonc RB (1968) Attitudinal effects of mere exposure. J Pers Soc Psychol 9:1–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Zaltman G (1997) Rethinking market research: Putting people back in. J Marketing Res 34:424–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Zaltman G (2002) Eliciting mental models through imagery. In: Galaburda AM, Kosslyn SM, Christen Y (Hrsg) The languages of the brain. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, S 363–375Google Scholar

Copyright information

© © Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien, Austria 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Lehrstuhl für Betriebswirtschaftslehre mit dem Schwerpunkt MarketingUniversität AugsburgAugsburgDeutschland

Personalised recommendations