Advertisement

Transition Studies Review

, Volume 20, Issue 1, pp 19–31 | Cite as

Brazil in the Transition Towards Knowledge Economy: Between Qualification and Internationalization of Human Capital

  • Alfonso GiordanoEmail author
  • Antonietta Pagano
Latin America Research

Abstract

The last decades has been characterized by an increasing relevance of knowledge and innovation into the economic system, becoming two crucial factors in the global competition. Therefore, qualified human capital has turn to be an essential strategic factor strongly needed by advanced and emerging economies. The paper focuses on the international competition for skilled professionals that have increased more and more during the years, bringing in the field new economic actors. In particular, the article investigates the rising importance of Brazil in the international talents’ competition, highlighting the current features of the local labour markets in the attempt to analyse the major elements of strength and weakness that characterizes the Brazilian scientific and economic system. To this end, the authors provide an analysis of the qualified migrants inflow and outflow, having the aim of a deeper comprehension of the attraction capability of Brazil.

Keywords

Emerging economies Human capital Knowledge-based economy Migration policies Skilled migrations 

JEL Classification:

O30 O54 N36 

References

  1. Balbachevsky E, Marques F (2009) Fuga de Cerebros en Brasil: los Costos Públicos del Errado Entendimiento de una Realidad Acadêmica http://wwwisis.ufg.edu.sv/wwwisis/documentos/EB/331.12791-F957/331.12791-F957-Fuga%20de%20cerebros%20en%20Brasil.pdf Accessed 12 October 2012
  2. BBC News (2012) Brazil ‘overtakes UK’s economy’. BBC, 6 March. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-17272716 Accessed 21 November 2012
  3. Becker G (1964) Human Capital. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. Bhagwati J, Hamada K (1974) The brain drain, international integration of markets for professional and unemployment. J Dev Econ 1:19–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Capes—Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (2009) GeoCapes—Distribução de Discentes. Capes, Brasilia. http://geocapes.capes.gov.br/ Accessed 21 November 2012
  6. Cervantes M, Guellec D (2002) The brain drain: Old myth, new realities. OECD Observer, Paris. http://www.oecdobserver.org/news/archivestory.php/aid/673/The_brain_drain:_Old_myths,_new_realities.html. Accessed 21 November 2012
  7. CGIg—Coordenação Geral de Imigração (2012) Estatisticas - Resumo General. Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego. http://portal.mte.gov.br/geral/estatisticas.htm Accessed 21 November 2012
  8. Cipollone P, Sestito P (2010) Il capitale umano. Il Mulino, BolognaGoogle Scholar
  9. Docquier F, Marfouk A (2004) Measuring the International Mobility of Skilled Workers (1990–2000). Policy Research Working Paper 3381, World Bank, Washington, D.C. http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2004/09/22/000160016_20040922150619/Rendered/PDF/wps3381.pdf Accessed 21 November 2012
  10. Docquier F, Rapoport H (2005) Skilled migration: the perspective of developing countries, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, 3382. World Bank, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  11. Eurostat Statistical Office of the European Union. Annual Data on Human Resources in Science & Technology (HRST) and Sub-groups of HRST at the National Level (2012), http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/science_technology_innovation/data/database, accessed 21 November 2012
  12. Findlay AM (1995) Skilled transients: the invisible phenomenon? In: Cohen R (ed) The Cambridge Survey of World Migration. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 515–522Google Scholar
  13. Frayssinet F (2012) Brazil to open doors to skilled immigrants, slam shut to others. Inter Press Service, 7 March. http://www.ipsnews.net/2012/03/brazil-to-open-doors-to-skilled-immigrants-slam-shut-to-others/ Accessed 21 November 2012
  14. Giordano A, Pagano A (2009) Brain Circulation e Sviluppo Economico: La Cina Tra Mobilità Intellettuale e Capacità Innovativa. Bol Soc Geog Italiana, vol. 13, April–June, Società Geografica Italiana, Rome, pp 403–422Google Scholar
  15. Giordano A, Pagano A (2010) La mobilità intellettuale cinese: un’analisi delle destinazioni e della composizione del capitale umano qualificato. Riv Geog Italiana, year CXVII, vol. 3, September, Società di Studi Geografici, Florence, pp. 653–682Google Scholar
  16. Giordano A, Terranova G (2012) The Indian Policy of Skilled Migration: Brain Return versus Diaspora Benefits. J Glob Policy Gov 1(1):17–28Google Scholar
  17. Goldstein A (2011) BRIC Brasile, Russia, India, Cina alla guida dell’economia globale. Il Mulino, BolognaGoogle Scholar
  18. Gould W (1988) Skilled international migration. Geoforum 19:381–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Iredale R (2001) The migration of professionals: theories and typologies. Int Migr 39(5):7–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Khadria B (2003) Case Study of the Indian Scientific Diaspora. In: Barre R, Hernandez V, Meyer JB, Vinck D (eds) Scientific Diasporas: How Can Developing Countries Benefit From Their Expatriate Scientists And Engineers?. Institut de Recherche pour le Développement IRD, ParisGoogle Scholar
  21. Lucas R (2008) International labor migration in a globalizing economy. Trade, Equity, and Development Program, n. 92. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  22. Maunoury JL (1972) Economie du savoir. Librairie Armand, Colin ParisGoogle Scholar
  23. OECD (2001) The Well-being of Nations. The role of human and social capital. OECD, ParisGoogle Scholar
  24. Pagano A (2012) La France au défi d’une géopolitique de la connaissance. L’attraction du capital humain qualifié italien. Outre-Terre, Revue Europeenne de Geopolitique 34:297–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Petrova H (2012) Skilled Migrants in Brazil. http://skilledmigrationandresearch.blogspot.it/2012/03/skilled-migrants-in-brazil.html Accessed 21 November 2012
  26. Ramos M, Velho L (2010) Doctoral training for innovation: Brazilian policy in a global context. XXI ISPIM Conference: The Dynamics of Innovation, The International Society for Professional Innovation Management—ISPIM, BilbaoGoogle Scholar
  27. Rampini F (2012) La nuova America. La Repubblica, 21 March, pp 33–35Google Scholar
  28. SAE—Secretaria de Assuntos Estratégicos (2012) Especialistas iniciam estudos sobre imigração no Brasil. http://www.sae.gov.br/site/?p=12788 Accessed 21 November 2012
  29. Salt J, Findlay AM (1989) International migration of highly skilled manpower: theoretical and development issues. In: Appleyard RT (ed) The Impact of International Migration on Developing Countries. OECD, Paris, pp 159–180Google Scholar
  30. Salvador A (2012) Profissionais qualificados formam nova onda migratória para o Brasil. VEJA, 30 September. http://veja.abril.com.br/noticia/economia/uma-turma-bem-preparada Accessed 21 November 2012
  31. Saxenian A (2005) From Brain Drain to Brain Circulation: transnational Communities and Regional Upgrading in India and China. Stud Comp Int Dev 40:35–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Schultz T (1971) Investment in Human Capital: The Role of Education and research. Free Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  33. Schwartzman S (1978) Brain Drain: Pesquisa Multinacional?. In: Oliveira Nunes E, A aventura sociológica—objetividade, paixão, improviso e método na pesquisa social. Zahar Editores, Rio de JaneiroGoogle Scholar
  34. Tavener B (2012) Brazil Work Visas for Foreign Professionals. The Rio Times, 17 January. http://translate.google.it/translate?hl=it&sl=en&tl=it&u=http%3A%2F%2Friotimesonline.com%2Fbrazil-news%2Ffront-page%2Fbrazil-work-visas-for-foreign-professionals%2F&anno=2 Accessed 21 November 2012
  35. Todisco E (1993) Intellectual, professional and skilled migrations. Studi Emigrazione 112:574–590Google Scholar
  36. World Bank (2012) World Bank national accounts data. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG?page=1 Accessed 21 November 2012

Copyright information

© CEEUN 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Political ScienceLUISS UniversityRomeItaly

Personalised recommendations