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Transition Studies Review

, Volume 16, Issue 2, pp 484–500 | Cite as

Environment, Climate Warming and Water Management

  • Deogratias Kibona
  • Gloria Kidulile
  • Fredrick Rwabukambara
Article

Natural Environment

The natural environment is a term that comprises all living and non-living things that occur naturally on Earth or some region thereof. This term includes ecological units like vegetation, animals, microorganisms, atmosphere, water bodies, and climate. Also including energy, radiation, magnetism and electric charge.

The natural environment is contrasted with the built environment, which comprises the areas and components that are strongly influenced by man. A geographical area is regarded as a natural environment, if the human impact on it is kept under a certain limited level. This level depends on the specific context, and changes in different areas and contexts.

Environmental Degradation

Very large development projects—also called mega projects—contribute to environmental degradation. The rate of increasing construction of major dams and power plants is increasingly high. The challenge to the environment from such projects is growing because more and bigger mega...

Keywords

Global Warming Climate Warming Environmental Conservation Safe Drinking Water Diarrhoeal Disease 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Antle JM, McGuckin T (1993) Technological innovation, agricultural productivity, and environmental quality. In: Carlson GA (ed) Agricultural and environmental resources economicsGoogle Scholar
  2. Bhatia R, Cestti R, Winpenny J (1995) Water conservation and reallocation: best practice cases in improving economic efficiency and environmental quality. World Bank–Overseas Development Institute Joint Study. World Bank, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  3. Birge R, Louveaux F (1997) Introduction to stochastic programming. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. Flyvbjerg B, Bruzelius N, Rothengatter W (2003) Megaprojects and risk: an anatomy of ambition. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  5. SWQM Data Management Reference Guide published on 23 March 2007Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Deogratias Kibona
    • 1
  • Gloria Kidulile
    • 1
  • Fredrick Rwabukambara
    • 1
  1. 1.Mzumbe UniversityMzumbeTanzania

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