Transition Studies Review

, Volume 15, Issue 4, pp 650–659 | Cite as

Exit, Voice, Loyalty in Transition: A Theoretical Framework

  • Zsolt SzabóEmail author
Society, Policy, Institutions and Governance


On the grounds of borrowing and reforming Hirschman’s terminology, ‘exit, voice, loyalty’, we show both a conceptual and a methodological framework that can be used to raise questions in transitology studies. These issues include the following points: are there any models being developed concerning the transition countries?; are there any similar models in Western Europe?; is there any convergence between the models of both Eastern and Western Europe? If the answer to the last issue is yes, then in which areas? Or if it is a no, is it true that a special economic, social and also political system is developing in Eastern Europe? Another issue concerns how strong the growth potential of the different models is. It also examines which are the successful models and which are not, and what is the role of the economic and political elite in the development of these models. This study includes only the theoretical framework.


Eastern Europe Institutions Market Conflict resolution Models of development 

JEL Classification

B52 D52 D72 D74 P50 P51 



We thank Péter Gedeon, Thomas Kloster-Jensen Macintyre, Erzsébet Kovács, Szabolcs Szajp, Balázs Pálvölgyi, Barbara Lovas and András Sugár for their very helpful comments and suggestions. The usual disclaimers apply.


  1. Beluszky P (1995) Közép-Európa - Merre vagy? (Central Europe—where are you?). Földrajzi Közlemények 3–4:223–232Google Scholar
  2. Bourdieu P (1986) The forms of capital. In: Richardson JG (ed) Handbook of theory and research in the sociology of education. Greenwood Press, Westport, pp 241–258Google Scholar
  3. Bruszt L, Stark D (1998) Postsocialist pathways. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  4. Carter FW (1996) Central Europe: fact or geographical fiction? In: Carter FW, Jordan P, Rey V (eds) Central Europe after the fall of iron curtain. Peter Lang, Frankfurt, pp 7–44Google Scholar
  5. Cernat L (2002) Institutions and Economic growth: Which model of capitalism for Central and Eastern Europe? J Inst Innov Dev Transit 6:18–34Google Scholar
  6. Dahl RA (1992) Why free markets are not enough? J Democr 3:82–89Google Scholar
  7. de Melo M, Denizer C, Gelb A, Tenev S (1997) Circumstance and choice: the role of initial conditions and policies in transition economies. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 1866Google Scholar
  8. Engerer H, Schrooten M (2002) Institutions, financial systems and the transition process, June 2002., downloaded on 07.07.2007
  9. Eyal G, Szelényi I, Townsley E (1998) Making capitalism without capitalists: class formation and elite struggles in pos-communist Central Europe. Verso Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. Gedeon P (1992) Demokrácia és piacgazdaság I-II. (Democracy and market economy I-II.) Közgazdasági Szemle 5:401–424; 6:525–537Google Scholar
  11. Grabher G, Stark D (1997) Organizing diversity. Evolutionary theory, network analysis and post-socialism. Reg Stud 5:533–544Google Scholar
  12. Greskovits B (1998) The political economy of protest and patience. East European and Latin American transformations compared. Central European University Press, BudapestGoogle Scholar
  13. Grogan L, Moers L (2001) Growth empirics with institutional measures for transition countries. Econ Syst 4:1–22Google Scholar
  14. Gros D, Suhrcke M (2000) Ten years after: what is special about transition countries? EBRD Working Paper No. 56Google Scholar
  15. Havrylyshyn O, Izworski I, van Rooden R (1998) Recovery and growth in transition economies 1990–1997—a stylized regression analysis. IMF Working Paper. WP/98/141Google Scholar
  16. Havrylyshyn O, van Rooden R (2000) Institutions matter in transition, but so do policies. IMF Working Paper. WP/00/70Google Scholar
  17. Hirschman AO (1970) Exit, voice, and loyalty. Responses to decline in firms, organizations, and states. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  18. Kolodko GW (2000) From shock to therapy. The political economy of postsocialist transformation. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  19. Kornai J (2004) What can countries embarking on post-socialist transformation learn from the experiences so far? Cuba Transition Project, Institute for Cuban and Cuban-American Studies, University of MiamiGoogle Scholar
  20. Kozma F (1998) A félperiféria (The semi-periphery) Aula, BudapestGoogle Scholar
  21. Lomax B (1993) Eastern Europe: restoration and crisis: the metamorphosis of power in Eastern Europe. Critique 1:47–84Google Scholar
  22. McFaul M (2002) The fourth wave of democracy and dictatorship. World Polit 1:212–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Offe C (1991) Das Dilemma der Gleichzeitigkeit. Demokratisierung und Marktwirtschaft in Osteuropa (The dilemma of simultaneity. Democratisation and market economy in Eastern Europe). Merkur 4:279–292Google Scholar
  24. Rodrik D (2000) Institutions for high-quality growth: what they are and how to acquire them. NBER Working Paper No. 7540Google Scholar
  25. Sala-i-Martin X (1996) The classical approach to convergence analysis. Econ J 437:1019–1036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Solow RM (1956) A contribution to the theory of economic growth. Q J Econ 1:65–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Szalai E (1995) The metamorphosis of the elites. In: Király KB, Bozóki A (eds) Lawful revolution in Hungary, 1989–1994. Columbia University Press, New York, pp 159–174Google Scholar
  28. Wallerstein I (1979) The capitalist world-economy. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Multidisciplinary Doctoral School of International Relations, World Economy DepartmentCorvinus UniversityBudapestHungary

Personalised recommendations