Phylogeographic structure of Spondias tuberosa Arruda Câmara (Anacardiaceae): seasonally dry tropical forest as a large and continuous refuge
- 155 Downloads
Spondias tuberosa occurs in the Caatinga domain (seasonally dry tropical forest biome) of north-eastern Brazil, a large biome with ecogeographic regions that may have modelled the population structure of the species. Here we studied the phylogeographic pattern of S. tuberosa using sequences of the accD-psaI plastid region and six SSR markers in individuals distributed across 20 localities. The results for accD-psaI demonstrated nine haplotypes: some of which were exclusive to Caatinga ecoregions, whereas others were found in all localities. Spatial analysis of molecular variance revealed two groups (Fct = 0.34, P < 0.0039) with 33.91% variation between them. The SSR analyses displayed 2–5 alleles at each locus, some of which were unique to certain localities. As in the accD-psaI region, the population structure obtained using SSR markers fell into two groups: (1) a large group containing the majority of the geographic region of Caatinga and (2) a small group near the Atlantic forest. We demonstrate the population structure of S. tuberosa, identifying the Caatinga as large, continuous refuge and the region near the interface between the Caatinga and the Atlantic forest as second refuge.
KeywordsCaatinga Population genetics Biogeography Evolution Spondias Umbu
The authors acknowledge the Federal University of Alagoas for the laboratory and scientific support.
E.B. and B.C. collected tissue and molecular data. C.A. analysed the data and led the writing. All authors conceived the ideas and approved the final version of the manuscript.
The authors thank the Fundação de Apoio à Pesquisa de Alagoas (FAPEAL) for funding this Project.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Espíndola ACM, Almeida CCS, Carvalho NSG, Roza MLA (2004) Diâmetro do caule e método de enxertia na formação de mudas de umbuzeiro (Spondias tuberosa Arr. Cam.). Rev Bras Agrociência 10:371–372Google Scholar
- Estoup A, Guillot G, Santos F (2007) Geneland: simulation and MCMC inference in landscape genetics. R package version 2.0.5. URL: http://cran.r-project.org/
- Ferreira ME, Grattapaglia D (1998) Introdução ao uso de marcadores moleculares em análise genética. Embrapa, BrasíliaGoogle Scholar
- Gonçalves-Oliveira RC, Wöhrmann T, Benko-Iseppon AM, Krapp F, Alves M, Wanderley MGL, Weising K (2017) Population genetic structure of the rock outcrop species Encholirium spectabile (Bromeliaceae): the role of pollination vs. seed dispersal and evolutionary implications. Am J Bot 104:868–878CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gruber B, Adamack A (2017) PopGenReport v3.0.0 https://github.com/green-striped-gecko/PopGenReport. A simple framework to analyse population and landscape genetic data
- Lorenzi H (2008) Árvores Brasileiras: Manual de identificação e cultivo de plantas arbóreas do Brasil. Nova Odessa, São PauloGoogle Scholar
- Moro MF, Silva IA, Araújo FS, Lughadha EN, Meagher TC, Martins FR (2015) The role of edaphic environment and climate in structuring phylogenetic pattern in seasonally dry tropical plant communities. Journal Plos one 13:083–970Google Scholar
- Paradis E, Jombart T, Schliep K, Potts A, Winter D (2017) Pegas v0.10 population and evolutionary genetics analysis systemGoogle Scholar
- Rambaut A, Drummond AJ (2009) Tracer version 1.5 [computer program] http://beast.bio.ed.ac.uk
- Santos CAF (1997) Dispersão da variabilidade fenotípica do umbuzeiro no semi-árido brasileiro. Pesq Agrop Brasileira 32:923–930Google Scholar
- Team RC (2012) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, AustriaGoogle Scholar