Finding loci associated to partial resistance to white pine blister rust in sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Dougl.).
- 261 Downloads
White pine blister rust (WPBR) is an exotic disease threatening five-needle pines in North America. In spite of its relatively recent introduction, some five-needle pines such as sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) have developed both complete (major) gene resistance and partial (quantitative) resistance to WPBR. While significant effort has been dedicated to clone and locate the position of the major gene of WPBR resistance in sugar pine, the genetic basis of quantitative resistance remains largely unknown in all Strobus pines. In this work, we took a preliminary approach to identify potential genotype × phenotype associations using the results of long-term survival and symptoms of infection in both experimental and applied breeding populations. Our study found significant associations between several genes and WPBR disease symptoms such as normal active cankers and blights, important symptoms in the development of partial resistance. No significant associations were found with percentage of survival, probably due to the complex inheritance of the disease and long time to infection. With this study, we hope to lay the ground for further genome-wide association studies using large phenotypic data sets in sugar pine and other Strobus pines.
KeywordsWhite pine blister rust Sugar pine Disease resistance Genotype × phenotype associations
We would like to thank the U.S. Forest Service sugar pine breeding program in California for establishing the Mapping population used in this study. AVL was supported by a UC MEXUS-CONACyT Postdoctoral fellowship.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Evanno G, Regnaut S, Goudet J (2005) Detecting the number of clusters of individuals using the software STRUCTURE: a simulation study. Mol Ecol 14(8):2611–2620Google Scholar
- Gernandt DS, Vázquez-Lobo A (2014) Conifers, the most diverse group of naked seed plants. In Vargas P, Zardoya R (eds). The tree of life. Sinauer Associates, Inc. pp. 122–131Google Scholar
- Jombart T, Ahmed I (2011) Adegenet 1.3-1: new tools for the analysis of genome-wide SNP data. Bioinformatics. https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btr521
- Kinloch BB, Davis DA, Burton D (2008) Resistance and virulence interactions between two white pine species and blister rust in a 30-year field trial. Tree Genet Genomes 4(1):65–74Google Scholar
- Krutovsky KV, St.Clair JB, Saich R, Hipkins VD, Neale DB (2009) Estimation of population structure in coastal Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii] using allozyme and microsatellite markers. Tree Genet Genomes 5(4):641–658Google Scholar
- Liu JJ, Schoettle AW, Sniezko RA, Sturrock RN, Zamany A, Williams H, Ha A, Chan D, Danchok B, Savin DP et al (2016) Genetic mapping of Pinus flexilis major gene (Cr4) for resistance to white pine blister rust using transcriptome-based SNP genotyping. BMC Genomics 17:753CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Liu JJ, Sniezko RA, Zamany A, Williams H, Wang N, Kegley A, Savin DP, Chen H, Sturrock RN (2017) Saturated genic SNP mapping identified functional candidates and selection tools for the Pinus monticola Cr2 locus controlling resistance to white pine blister rust. Plant Biotechnol J. https://doi.org/10.1111/pbi.12705
- Maloy OC (2003) White pine blister rust. Plant Health Instructor. https://doi.org/PHI-I-2003-0908-01 Updated 2008
- McDonald GI, Hoff RJ (2001) Blister rust: an introduced plague. In: Tomback, Diana F; Arno Stephen F; Keane Robert E, eds. Whitebark pine communities: ecology and restoration. Washington, DC. Island Press: 195-220Google Scholar
- Purcell S, Neale B, Todd-Brown K, Thomas L, Ferreira MAR, Bender D, Maller J, Sklar P, de Bakker PIW, Daly MJ, Sham PC (2007) PLINK: a toolset for whole-genome association and population-based linkage analysis Am J Human Genet 81Google Scholar
- Sniezko RA, Bower A, Danielson J (2000) A comparison of early field results of white pine blister rust resistance in sugar pine and western white pine. Hortechnology 10(3):519–522Google Scholar
- Stevens KA, Wegrzyn JL, Zimin A, Puiu D, Crepeau M, Cardeno C, Paul R, Gonzalez D, Koribiane M, Holtz-Morris AE, Martinez-Garcia PJ, Sezen UU, Marcais G, Jermstad K, McGuire PE, Loopstra CA, Davis JM, Eckert A, deJong P, Yorke JA, Salzberg SL, Neale DB, Langley CH (2016) Sequence of the sugar pine megagenome: transposable elements and white pine blister rust resistance. Genetics 204(4):1613–1626CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zambino PJ, McDonald GI (2004) Resistance to white pine blister rust in North American five-needle pines and Ribes and its implications. 51st western international Forest disease WorkConference, 18–22 august 2003, grants pass, OR, USA. Ed. by Geils, B. W. Flagstaff, AZ: USDA Forest service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, pp. 111–125Google Scholar